Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Nokia updates Self-Organizing Network software for zero-touch 5G automation

 Nokia introduced upgraded cognitive Self-Organizing Networks software to drive zero-touch operations for 5G.

Instead of the traditional operator console, the software provides an objective driven dashboard that helps operations stakeholders – from chief experience officers to market engineers – to  decipher how their objectives are realized by SON.

Nokia said its updated SON software increased operational efficiency by 80 percent in a proof of concept exercise conducted with a leading North American operator.

Nokia cognitive SON has a vendor-agnostic network slice management function to automate the radio slice life cycle and resource optimization. Leveraging ML and automation capabilities, Nokia cognitive SON will be able to optimize each slice separately to ensure better network availability and quality.

Brian McCann, Chief Product Officer of Nokia Software, said: “This cognitive upgrade to our Nokia SON solution massively reduces the need for manual work and technical expertise when optimizing radio networks, allowing us to deliver our promise for a much more efficient and error-free process that will ultimately result in better network quality and reliability. It is a timely product and one that reinforces Nokia’s software innovation leadership.”

ZenFi brings Telia Carrier to carrier and enterprises in NYC metro

ZenFi Networks will offer connectivity to Telia Carrier's global IP backbone to its wholesale and enterprise customers throughout the New York and New Jersey metro region.

The collaboration enhances ZenFi Networks’ footprint outside of the New York City and New Jersey metro region, empowering customers to expand their reach to more than 300 Points of Presence in 120 global markets. The partnership also gives Telia Carrier access to ZenFi Networks’ expansive fiber footprint, spanning more than 1,100 route miles, to provide diverse access to enterprise destinations across New York and New Jersey, a market with one of the world’s densest concentrations of commercial business.

“Like Telia Carrier, ZenFi Networks is focused on the customer experience,” said Rob Pulkownik, Telia Carrier’s Head of Channel Sales. “We’ve found that the core values of the two companies are in alignment. Both organizations focus on the customer with rapid delivery, collaboration and transparency as guiding principles. The complementary nature of ZenFi Networks’ metro NYC footprint and Telia Carrier’s #1 Global IP backbone adds up to a consistently positive experience for our shared customer base.”

“We have had a long-standing relationship with Telia Carrier and are excited for the evolution of our partnership.  Our mutual customer-centric values create a collaboration that better serves our customers,” said Walter Cannon, Vice President of Business Development at ZenFi Networks. “Telia Carrier’s expanded global reach compliments ZenFi Networks’ ability to offer enhanced solutions and services to our channel partners, our wholesale customers, and enterprise businesses within and beyond our regional footprint.”

http://www.teliacarrier.com

http://www.zenfi.com


Co-founder of ARM urges UK to block sale to NVIDIA

 Hermann Hauser, co-founder of Arm, published an open letter to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom urging that the sale of Arm to Nvidia be blocked.

Hauser presents three arguments:

  • the impact on jobs in Cambridge, Manchester, Belfast, Glasgow, Sheffield and Warwick once the company's headquarters are moved out of the UK;
  • the inevitable destruction of Arm's open licensing business model 
  • national economic sovereignty.

As an alternative to the sale, Hauser urges a public listing on the London Stock Exchange, with the UK government investing £1-2bn and getting a Golden Share to ensure the public interest.

https://savearm.co.uk/

Tencent to build digital hub in Singapore

Tencent announced plans to build a digital hub of operations in Singapore to serve customers throughout southeast Asia.

In August, Tencent reported 1H2020 revenue of RMB222.948 billion (US$31.492 billion), an increase of 28% over the first half of 2019.


  • Bytedance and Alibaba have also recently announced plans to invest in Singapore. These announcements follow the recent decision by India to ban Chinese applications.

Monday, September 14, 2020

Silicon Photonics Copackaging Webinar - September 16

Silicon photonics is advancing rapidly with new approaches in manufacturing. 

On Weds., September 16 at 10:00am (Pacific) we will host a webinar on Silicon Photonics Co-Packaging and Manufacturing Techniques with IBM's B. Alexander Janta-Polczynski and Vikas Gupta of GLOBALFOUNDRIES.

The manufacturing techniques for silicon photonics being developed by these partners have the potential to significantly reduce packaging costs for datacom, LiDAR & photonic computing applications — including at very high data rates of 800G. 

This is a free webinar and everyone is welcome to attend.  If you can’t make it at that time on September. 16, we will post a replay soon.  Thanks!




DISH picks Nokia for cloud-native, 5G standalone core

DISH Network selected Nokia’s cloud-native, standalone Core software products to help it build the most advanced, disruptive, fully-automated, cloud-native 5G network in the U.S..

The deal, which follows months of joint testing, includes subscriber data management, device management, packet core, voice and data core, as well as integration services. Nokia will also deliver additional cloud-native products that will provide 4G, 5G standalone and Voice over Wi-Fi access to core network functions. Financial terms were not disclosed

Marc Rouanne, DISH Chief Network Officer, said: “This is an important step in bringing to life DISH’s plans to deliver the first open, agile, virtualized 5G network in the U.S. Nokia’s new release is cloud-native, standalone and ready for full automation, providing DISH the software capabilities required to deliver thousands of network slices with low latency and SLA on demand.”

Bhaskar Gorti, President of Nokia Software and Nokia Chief Digital Officer, said: “The benefits of Nokia’s industry-leading, cloud-native standalone 5G Core products built on our proven Common Software Foundation -- near-zero-touch automation capabilities, high-level operational efficiencies, scale and performance – continue to set us apart from the competition. DISH has great ambition and we are both excited and laser-focused on helping them deliver on that.”

AT&T and NTT DOCOMO enter 5G roaming pact

AT&T announced a 5G international roaming agreement with NTT DOCOMO.

“As a longtime industry leader providing global connectivity, we’re evolving the breadth and depth of our global coverage with 5G,” said Susan A. Johnson, executive vice president – Global Connections & Supply Chain, AT&T. “This marks a significant milestone for AT&T and our customers.”

“We’re excited to launch 5G roaming in Japan on NTT DOCOMO, Inc.’s network because of what it means for our customers,” said JR Wilson, vice president – Tower Strategy & Roaming, AT&T. “Our teams never stop innovating, developing and deploying the latest technology to provide our customers with access to a next-generation network – at home and abroad.”

CenturyLink is now Lumen

CenturyLink changed its name to Lumen Technologies.

The company's mission statement is "to help lead enterprises through the challenges and opportunities of the 4th Industrial Revolution – a time when smart, connective devices are everywhere."

"Our people are dedicated to furthering human progress through technology. Lumen is all about enabling the amazing potential of our customers, by utilizing our technology platform, our people, and our relationships with customers and partners," stated Lumen president and CEO Jeff Storey.

Effective with the opening of the trading day on Sept. 18, 2020, the company stock ticker will change from CTL to LUMN.

Lumen said its worldwide fiber network infrastructure and complementary capabilities deliver unique competitive advantages to customers in four key areas:

  • Adaptive Networking: Lumen provides hybrid network solutions built to quickly respond to customers' ever-changing data and application needs. 
  • Edge Cloud & IT Agility: Lumen enhances application experiences by delivering low-latency, high performance data access and by moving data and workloads closer to where customers need them.
  • Connected Security: Lumen offers global threat intelligence, network-based security controls and deep security expertise to help customers protect their data and applications against constantly evolving threats.
  • Communications & Collaboration: Lumen's communication and collaboration solutions make it easy for people to stay connected, productive and engaged wherever they are located.  

https://news.lumen.com/jeff-storey-introduces-lumen

  • 2008 - CenturyTel acquires Embarq, which was the former landline business of Sprint and served cities in 18 states. 
  •  2011 - CenturyLink acquires Qwest, which consisted over a nationwide long-haul fiber network along with the local access networks of the previous US West (a Baby Bell serving much of the western United States) 
  •  2011 -  CenturyLink acquires Savvis, a global provider of cloud infrastructure and hosted IT services. 
  •  2017 - CenturyLink acquires Level 3 Communications in a deal valued at around $25 billion.
  • 2017 - CenturyLink sells its data centers and colocation business to private investors, forming the new company called Cyxtera Technologies

Verizon to acquire Tracfone and its 21 million prepaid users for $6.5 billion

Verizon agreed to acquire Tracfone from America Movil for $6.5 billion, including $3.125 billion in cash and $3.125 billion in Verizon common stock.

Tracfone is a leading pre-paid and value mobile provider in the U.S. serving approximately 21 million subscribers through a network of over 90,000 retail locations nationwide. A longtime partner of Verizon, more than 13 million Tracfone subscribers currently rely on Verizon’s wireless network through an existing wholesale agreement.

“This transaction is aligned with what we do best: providing reliable wireless service alongside a best-in-class customer experience,” said Hans Vestberg, Chairman and CEO of Verizon. “We are excited about the opportunity to bring Tracfone and its brands into the Verizon family where we can put the full support of Verizon behind this business and provide exciting and compelling products into this attractive segment of the market. We are pursuing this important strategic acquisition from a position of strength given our very strong and prudent financial profile.”




Ribbon hires Sam Bucci to head its Packet Optical Networks business

Ribbon Communications announced the appointment of Sam Bucci as Executive Vice President & General Manager, Packet Optical Networks, a newly created position following Ribbon's acquisition of ECI Telecom earlier this year. 

Bucci most recently lead the optical business unit for Nokia, managing a multi-billion-dollar business unit and leading a global team. Prior to his tenure at Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent, Bucci spent several years at Nortel Networks' optical business unit in various senior product management, sales and business development roles. He received a Bachelor of Engineering degree with distinction from McGill University in Canada.

"I am very excited to welcome Sam to the Ribbon leadership team," said Bruce McClelland, Ribbon Communications Chief Executive Officer. "He is a perfect fit to help us execute on both our short-term and long-term strategy of establishing Ribbon as a force in the global data communications industry. Sam is a thoughtful technology and business leader who has successfully built and executed multi-year strategies focused on taking advantage of technical and commercial discontinuities to deliver differentiated offerings and gain market share in a complex, competitive operating environment. His outstanding reputation and impressive track record will be a significant addition to the Ribbon leadership team."

"I am thrilled to join Ribbon during this exciting period for the packet optical market," said Bucci. "Ribbon's recent acquisition of ECI Telecom, combined with the renewed energy and great leadership Bruce is providing, creates a clear path for Ribbon to be a disruptive force in the market. I am excited to be a part of these efforts and look forward to supporting the strategy."



EKINOPS appoints Munière as CTO

 EKINOPS announced the appointment of Vincent Munière as its new Chief Technology Officer and Vice President of Research and Development.

Munière previously served at SFR (Altice Group), where he was most recently SVP, Network & OSS (Operations Support System) Engineering, managing a team of about 900 people and leading the network and IT OSS engineering activities. Prior to SFR, he spent 8 years developing solutions for carriers at Alcatel / Alcatel-Lucent in France, both in R&D and Pre-Sales organizations, and 3 years at ICO Global Communications in the UK. His dual background, strong customer focus and ability to understand the transport, switching and routing layers and challenges will be a great asset to deliver the innovative solutions service providers are looking for.

"We are very fortunate to have attracted such a talented executive and Vincent's experience will be invaluable to Ekinops. He knows how to deliver major technical innovations, define a strong technology vision and lead large teams through transformation programs to deliver on that vision. He comes in at a perfect time as we are migrating toward virtualization, 5G and edge computing which are areas he masters. His joining is a significant step toward continued growth and achievement of our strategic objectives," added Didier Brédy, CEO, Ekinops.



Gigamon opens R&D center in Ottawa

Gigamon announced plans to build out a world-class Research and Development (R&D) team in Ottawa, Canada with the goal of an office opening in 2021. Gigamon currently has tech hubs in Santa Clara, California; Seattle, Washington; and Chennai, India with sales offices worldwide.

“When reviewing potential expansion opportunities in North America, we considered a number of attractive options. In the end, Ottawa’s diverse workforce and bustling tech community made it the clear choice,” said Shane Buckley, President and Chief Operating Officer at Gigamon. “I would like to thank our partners at Invest Ottawa for being such tremendous partners throughout this process. We look forward to adding the best of the best to our team as our new tech hub will play a vital role in supporting our accelerated growth trajectory.”

http://www.gigamon.com



DASAN Network Solutions leverages SiTime's silicon MEMS timing

DASAN Network Solutions, the top provider of networking solutions in Korea, is using SiTime’s silicon MEMS timing solutions. 

SiTime said its MEMS oscillators are used by DASAN in products such as FTTx OLT/ONT, 5G mobile backhaul and Ethernet switches, as well as access products.

“DASAN is a premier vendor of networking equipment in Korea and the rest of the world, and has been working with SiTime for many years,” said SC Moon, VP of R&D, DASAN Network Solutions. “Our electronics must deliver the highest performance and reliability while working in harsh environments. SiTime’s MEMS timing solutions enable us to deliver this benefit to our customers.”

“In addition to its strong presence in Korea, DASAN’s equipment is deployed worldwide in a variety of environments. Additionally, DASAN’s innovative culture pushes the boundaries of equipment performance while operating in harsh conditions,” said Piyush Sevalia, executive vice president of marketing at SiTime. “In all these conditions, SiTime’s MEMS timing solutions deliver a game-changing benefit – they offer up to 20 times better performance and 30 times better reliability. We look forward to continue collaborating with DASAN and delivering these benefits for the foreseeable future.”

http://www.sitime.com


Sunday, September 13, 2020

NVIDIA to acquire ARM for $40 billion

 In a deal that will redefine the semiconductor market, NVIDIA agreed to acquire Arm Limited from Softbank for $40 billion. Under the deal, NVIDIA will pay to SoftBank a total of $21.5 billion in NVIDIA common stock and $12 billion in cash. NVIDIA will also issue $1.5 billion in equity to Arm employees. The deal does not include Arm’s IoT Services Group.

NVIDIA vowed to retain Arm's open-licensing model while maintaining the global customer neutrality that has been foundational to its success. NVIDIA also committed to retaining Arm's headquarters in Cambridge, UK.

SoftBank will retain a minority stake in NVIDIA, which is expected to be under 10%.

“AI is the most powerful technology force of our time and has launched a new wave of computing,” said Jensen Huang, founder and CEO of NVIDIA. “In the years ahead, trillions of computers running AI will create a new internet-of-things that is thousands of times larger than today’s internet-of-people. Our combination will create a company fabulously positioned for the age of AI.

“Simon Segars and his team at Arm have built an extraordinary company that is contributing to nearly every technology market in the world. Uniting NVIDIA’s AI computing capabilities with the vast ecosystem of Arm’s CPU, we can advance computing from the cloud, smartphones, PCs, self-driving cars and robotics, to edge IoT, and expand AI computing to every corner of the globe.

“This combination has tremendous benefits for both companies, our customers, and the industry. For Arm’s ecosystem, the combination will turbocharge Arm’s R&D capacity and expand its IP portfolio with NVIDIA’s world-leading GPU and AI technology.

https://nvidianews.nvidia.com/news/nvidia-to-acquire-arm-for-40-billion-creating-worlds-premier-computing-company-for-the-age-of-ai

NVIDIA acquires Mellanox - focus on Next Gen Data Centers

NVIDIA completed its $7 billion acquisition of Mellanox Technologies. The deal was originally announced on March 11, 2019.

NVIDIA says that by combining its computing expertise with Mellanox’s high-performance networking technology, data center customers will achieve higher performance, greater utilization of computing resources and lower operating costs.

“The emergence of AI and data science, as well as billions of simultaneous computer users, is fueling skyrocketing demand on the world’s datacenters,” said Jensen Huang, founder and CEO of NVIDIA. “Addressing this demand will require holistic architectures that connect vast numbers of fast computing nodes over intelligent networking fabrics to form a giant datacenter-scale compute engine.

“We share the same vision for accelerated computing as NVIDIA,” said Eyal Waldman, founder and CEO of Mellanox. “Combining our two companies comes as a natural extension of our longstanding partnership and is a great fit given our common performance-driven cultures. This combination will foster the creation of powerful technology and fantastic opportunities for our people.”

NVIDIA also promised to continue investing in Israel, where Mellanox is based.

NVIDIA acquires Cumulus, promising full-stack data center innovation

NVIDIA has acquired Cumulus Networks. Financial terms were not disclosed.

Cumulus, which was founded in 2010 by JR Rivers and Nolan Leake, developed a Linux-based operating system for network switches. The company signed licensing deals with Dell, HPE, Mellanox, and Lenovo. Cumulus is also known for its pioneering work with the open network install environment (ONIE) project.  Investors in the company included Andreessen Horowitz, Battery Ventures, Sequoia Capital, Peter Wagner and 4 of the 5 original VMware founders. Cumulus is based in Mountain View, California.

NVIDIA said the combination of its recently-acquired Mellanox division with Cumulus Networks will enable a new era for accelerated, software-defined data centers.

NVIDIA's target is to "innovate and optimize across the entire networking stack from chips and systems to software including analytics like Cumulus NetQ, delivering great performance and value to customers."

Mellanox has been collaborating with Cumulus since 2013. Mellanox Spectrum switches already ship with Cumulus Linux and SONiC, the open source offering forged in Microsoft’s Azure cloud and managed by the Open Compute Project.

SoftBank Confirms Acquisition of ARM

SoftBank Group Corp. agreed to acquire ARM Holdings Plc in an all-cash deal valued at £24.3 billion. (US$32.4 billion), or 1,700 pence per ARM share, and representing a premium of 43% over the closing price on preceding trading day. The deal would be Softbank's largest to date.


SoftBank, which is based in Tokyo and is headed by Masayoshi Son, said it intends to preserve the ARM organization and business model, including ARM's senior management team and its headquarters in Cambridge, England. The companies said they intend to double employee headcount in the UK over the next five years.

ARM is the leading developer of RISC processor designs that are widely licensed for use in smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops, embedded systems, and, increasing, servers. The company posted 2015 revenue of £968.3 million. A total of 14.8 billion ARM-powered SoCs shipped in 2015, up from just over 12 billion in 2014.

SoftBank will fund the acquisition with cash on hand and a load from Mizuho Bank of Japan.


“We have long admired ARM as a world renowned and highly respected technology company that is by some distance the market-leader in its field. ARM will be an excellent strategic fit within the SoftBank group as we invest to capture the very significant opportunities provided by the “Internet of Things,” stated  Masayoshi Son, Chairman and CEO of SoftBank.

Regarding strategic rationale, both companies said they see big opportunities ahead with IoT.




NVIDIA video: accelerating public and private clouds

 Customers deploying cloud infrastructure run into performance issues in four key areas: virtualization, SDN, storage, and security. In this video, Ash Bhalgat, Senior Director of Cloud & Telco Market Development at NVIDIA’s Networking Business Unit, explains how to achieve maximum cloud infrastructure efficiency without sacrificing performance by using NVIDIA’s Mellanox Networking products and open-source software tools.

See video: 


Ericsson hits 5.4 Gbps in its own C Band campus network

 Ericsson demonstrated a 5G campus network using C Band spectrum and achieving 5.4 Gbps peak cell capacity.

The demonstration used Ericsson's commercial equipment and 16-layer Multi-user MIMO 256 QAM with 8 UEs over 100MHz on C Band.

The C Band campus network utilizes a test license C Band Special Temporary Authorization (STA) from the FCC and consists of 64T64R AAS radio, baseband, Router 6000 and core network equipment from Ericsson, and is part of the 5G Distributed Innovation Network at Ericsson’s Plano, Texas, facility.

Kevin Zvokel, Head of Networks, Ericsson North America says: “Exceeding 5 Gbps on C Band spectrum sets high expectations for mid-band 5G deployments in the US. Ericsson is prepared to help our customers deploy 5G infrastructure now with superior performance and coverage to deliver the full potential of 5G.”




Ericsson 5G Radio Dot deployed in Shenyang's subway

 Ericsson’s 5G indoor radio small cell solution has been deployed on Shenyang’s subway Line 9.

The Ericsson Radio Dot system is now providing China Mobile 5G connectivity across all 22 stations on the line. The 5G network has been operational for several months. The Ericsson 5G Radio Dot System on Line 9 operates on various China Mobile frequencies. It provides a stable downlink of 1Gbps and a maximum transmission rate of up to 1.4Gbps. A 1GB high-definition movie could therefore be downloaded within 10 seconds.

More than 900,000 passengers use the subway system in Shenyang, northeast China, every day. 

Ericsson said it managed to install more than 500 5G Radio Dots across the 22 stations in just 20 days - 40 days ahead of schedule.

Dr. Jessey Huang, Head of Ericsson’s Indoor Product Line, says: “The Ericsson 5G Radio Dot provides high-quality 5G performance in areas where it has been traditionally difficult to get coverage and high data speeds. As 5G subscriptions increase, the 5G Radio Dot is the perfect answer to meeting the increasing data needs of subscribers in such areas, for example, subway stations.  We have worked closely with China Mobile on the Shenyang Subway Line 9 deployment and it is a milestone for 5G-enabled transportation in Liaoning province. This opens doors to high-speed connectivity with low latency to passengers for bandwidth-intensive applications while on the move. The 5G-enabled subway will also facilitate Shenyang’s transformation to a smart city.”


Ericsson updates its Radio Dot for 5G

Ericsson has enhanced its Radio Dot System with a tri-band model supporting multi-band, multi-operator deployments; a new fiber solution for increased backhaul flexibility; and a model supporting 4G and 5G deployments.

The new multi-band Dot and IRU ensure higher network speeds through carrier aggregation, including support for both 4G and 5G on one Cat cable – an industry-leading solution. This creates stable and easy migration paths for service providers. The fiber solution will also allow service providers to capitalize on pre-existing fiber in buildings, showcasing the company’s flexibility in design and delivery.

Ericsson plans to ship these new solutions in the second half of 2020.

Korean cable laying ship catches fire and sinks

 A fire broke out on the Souther Korean-flagged cable-laying ship Responder west of the southern tip of Tsushima island, East China sea, South Korea. The incident occurred west of the southern tip of Tsushima island in the East China sea.  According to Maritime Bulletin, all sixty personnel were evacuated. The ship subsequently sank.


https://youtu.be/593KwsfiajI

http://www.maritimebulletin.net/2020/09/11/cable-laying-ship-on-fire-all-60-personnel-evacuated-east-china-sea/

Huawei and China Unicom hit 4.7 Gbps per cell with indoor MIMO

Huawei and China Unicom achieved a peak rate of up to 4.7 Gbps for cells with 100 MHz bandwidth in a test of 5G indoor distributed Massive MIMO

This indoor distributed Massive MIMO test was deployed and verified in the China's National Center for the Performing Arts (NCPA) using multiple terminals, and results showed that the downlink peak rate reached 4.7 Gbps in 100 MHz C-band cells.

Dr. Li Fuchang, Director of the Wireless Technology Research Center of China Unicom Research Institute, said: "At China Unicom, we are committed to improving the quality of products and services through innovation to bring intelligent technologies to customer's lives and increase the efficiency of production for businesses. To achieve this goal, China Unicom has been working with Huawei to innovate on the indoor distributed massive MIMO technology. With the rapid development of user bases and applications, 5G traffic requirements will increase also rapidly. This solution will help us pursue flexible capacity expansion on live networks, laying a solid technological foundation for continuing to deliver premium 5G experience for customers and diversifying 5G vertical applications for various businesses."

 technology.

The indoor distributed Massive MIMO technology is one of the innovative applications implemented in the 5G Capital project, which was launched last year in Beijing by Huawei and China Unicom to demonstrate the transformative power of 5G.

Ribbon to offer its UCaaS on IBM Cloud

 Ribbon Communications has joined the IBM Cloud for Financial Services ecosystem and intends to onboard its Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) offering to the platform. 

Ribbon's Kandy Business Solutions will provide financial institutions with a full suite of cloud-based Unified Communications (UC) services (Cloud PBX, Cloud Collaboration, Cloud Contact Center, SIP Trunks) and clients like chat, video, voice and text, enabling the seamless transition of business communications to the cloud.

"We are excited to expand our relationship with Ribbon Communications by helping to onboard its Kandy Business Solutions to the IBM Cloud for Financial Services," said Evaristus Mainsah, General Manager, Cloud, Cloud Pak and Edge Ecosystem, IBM. "Ribbon's offering can help financial institutions transform their business communications with a safe platform. Ribbon's participation in our ecosystem helps to provide financial services customers with innovative tools and solutions that enable them to move their operations to the cloud."

  • Ribbon recently announced that it has entered into an agreement to sell the Kandy Communications business, including Kandy Business Solutions, to American Virtual Cloud Technologies, Inc. (AVCtechnologies). The proposed sale, which is expected to close in the second half of 2020, is subject to receipt of the approval of AVCtechnologies' stockholders, AVCtechnologies' completion of an equity offering, consent of the lenders under Ribbon's credit facility, as well as other customary closing conditions.