Wednesday, February 21, 2018

Angola Cables interconnects in Florida with Fiberlight

FiberLight will provide backhaul connectivity in the U.S.for Angola Cables. The partners will leverage the recently completed 10,556-km Monet cable linking Florida to Brazil, which is capable of delivering a minimum of 64 Tbps of capacity.

Angola Cables operates two fiber optic pairs within the Monet cable system, one transmitting data from Fortaleza, Brazil to U.S. shores and the other carrying traffic to Sao Paulo, Brazil.

“The link-up with FiberLight will allow Angola Cables to deliver reliable, high graded services beyond the Monet cable termination point of MI3 Equinix and the data center in Boca Raton at Equinix’s MI1 colocation facility in Miami, Florida,” said António Nunes, CEO of Angola Cables

Equinix’s MI1 is also known as the NAP of the Americas (NOTA) and is the key gateway for internet traffic between the U.S. and Brazil.

“As digital transformation continues to bring the world closer together, FiberLight has made it a priority to partner with international data carriers and establish presence within world-class subsea landing stations to ensure global communication and data transport activities benefit from access to reliable, high bandwidth fiber network capabilities,” said Don MacNeil, FiberLight’s CEO.

FiberLight appoints Don MacNeil as CEO, formerly XO

FiberLight, which owns over 1,700,000 miles of robust fiber networks in over 44 U.S. cities, appointed Don MacNeil as its new CEO, replacing Jim Lynch who will now assume the role of Executive Chairman. MacNeil joined FiberLight as Chief Operating Officer (COO) in September. He previously served as Chief Technology Officer (CTO) for EdgeConneX, an innovative data center solutions provider, which built a national portfolio of 29 edge data centers...

MONET subsea cable enters service connecting U.S. and Brazil

The Monet subsea cable system, which links the U.S. and Brazil, is complete and ready for commercial service. The 100Gbps-capable cable system offers an initial 64 Tbps of capacity.  The 10,556km cable has shore landings in Boca Raton, Florida; Fortaleza, Brazil; and Praia Grande, Brazil. Monet is owned by Algar Telecom (Brazil), Angola Cables (Angola), Antel (Uruguay), Google and TE SubCom, a TE Connectivity Ltd. company. Antonio Nunes,...

South Atlantic Cable System is now 75% complete

Construction on the South Atlantic Cable System (SACS), which is a 40 Tbit/s, 6,165 km cable connecting Angola to Brazil, is now 75% complete. It is expected to enter service in mid 2018. SACS offers four fibre pairs, with each fibre pair capable of transmitting 100 wavelengths with a bandwidth of 100 Gbit/s, which will connect from Angola to Brazil. SACS is scheduled to be ready for service in mid-2018. NEC, which is the turn-key contractor for...

Bosch enters ridesharing business

Bosch, which is one of the world's leading suppliers of automotive subsystems, announced its entrance into the ridesharing business and its acquisition of Splitting Fares, a start-up based in Detroit that operates a platform that allows companies, universities, and municipal authorities to offer their workforces ridesharing services. Financial terms were not disclosed.

The SPLT app connects people who share the same route to their place of work or study. The app finds the best composition for the ride-share, and computes the fastest route.

“Increasingly, smartphones are becoming the most important means of travel,” Heyn added. Connecting road users and modes of transportation is making flexible, multimodal mobility possible: in a matter of seconds, everyone can decide how they want to travel, and make the necessary bookings. “With this sustainable and affordable mobility service, we want to fundamentally change the way people get from A to B,” said Anya Babbitt, the co-founder and CEO of SPLT.

Bosch said it is pursuing a range of IoT activities encompassing solutions for connected mobility, connected manufacturing, as well as for connected energy systems and buildings.

Accedian acquires Performance Vision for network and app performance mgt

Accedian has acquired Performance Vision, a company based in Paris that specializes in network and application performance management (NPM/APM). Financial terms were not disclosed.

Accedian said Performance Vision’s exceptional wire data analytics complements its own SkyLIGHT active monitoring platform, bringing visibility of all applications, transactions, and network components together.

The solution delivers actionable insight generated by analyzing all traffic crossing physical, virtual, cloud and SDN infrastructure.

Commenting on the acquisition, Accedian CEO Patrick Ostiguy said, “The combination of Performance Vision and Accedian creates a proposition that is truly unique. There is no other company that is able to offer this level of accuracy and granularity into how the performance of the network and the applications running over it impact the end-user digital experience, in real-time, for enterprises of all sizes.”

“As virtualization and hybrid cloud applications continue to be deployed at an accelerated pace, the interdependence of network and application performance increases significantly,” said Sergio Bea, Vice President of Global Enterprise and Channels at Accedian. “The ability to see the entire digital infrastructure uniformly—from end-user to multiple data centers, clouds, and SaaS applications—fills a visibility gap that otherwise threatens digital transformation projects’ success, speed, return on investment (ROI), and business value.”

Accedian also announced two executive appointments: Sergio Bea joined the company as Vice President of Global Enterprise and Channels, while Richard Piasentin took the role of Chief Marketing Officer and Chief Strategy Officer.

Broadcom trims its offer for Qualcomm to $79 per share

Broadcom trimmed its offer to acquire Qualcomm from $82 to $79 per share, but said it is still committed to pursuing the deal. The offer consists of $57 in cash and $22 in Broadcom shares.

The decision to cut the price follows Qualcomm's decision to increase its offer to acquire NXP Semiconductor from $110 to $127.50 per share.

Broadcom's proposed merger agreement otherwise remains unchanged, including the $8 billion regulatory reverse termination fee and 6% per annum (net of dividends) ticking fee accruing from and after the 12-month anniversary of the date of the merger agreement.

CyrusOne hits Q4 revenue of $180.5 milllion

CyrusOne reported Q4 revenue of $180.5 million, compared to $137.4 million for the same period in 2016, an increase of 31%. The increase in revenue was driven primarily by a 49% increase in leased CSF and additional interconnection services. Q4 net income was $2.8 million, compared to net income of $0.8 million in the same period in 2016.

Some highlights:
  • In Q4, CyrusOne leased 9MW and 86,000 colocation square feet, totaling $18 million in annualized GAAP revenue
  • For full year 2017, CyrusOne signed more than 1,700 leases totaling 58 MW and 521,000 CSF, representing $105 million in annualized GAAP revenue
“We had another very strong year signing $105 million in annualized revenue, increasing the size of our footprint by more than 50%, extending our presence to the Southeastern U.S. and Europe, developing a solution for our customers in China, and raising nearly $2.5 billion in the capital markets. We are very excited about this next phase of growth for the company as we expand internationally to help our customers with their increasingly global requirements,” stated Gary Wojtaszek, president and CEO of CyrusOne.

Napatech adds TRex traffic generating to its FPGA-powered SmartNICs

Napatech announced support for TRex on its FPGA-powered SmartNICs, enabling lossless, high-performance traffic generation at all speeds up to 100GigE.

TRex is an open source traffic generator, widely deployed across industries to test, benchmark and debug networks.

"When developing high-performance networking equipment, you constantly need the ability to generate traffic at ultra-high speeds over complex real-world traffic patterns. By running TRex on a Napatech SmartNIC, I now get all the features of TRex while having my own small high-performance system that can run independently from the existing setup," stated Michael Lilja, chief technology architect of Napatech.

Swisscom tests network slicing with Ericsson

Swisscom and Ericsson are collaborating on end-to-end network slicing for critical communications in a joint project to deploy and explore new use cases for 4G and 5G.

The two companies plan to demonstrate how end-to-end network slicing can be implemented on Ericsson’s 4G and 5G network solutions at the upcoming Mobile World Congress. The demonstration will use commercially available features in the Ericsson radio access network, such as RAN slicing and Quality of Service control, combined with Ericsson’s core network functionality and Operations Support Systems offering, securing the reliability and performance of applications for critical communications.ti

Profile of the Telecoms market in Kenya - part 3

Preamble: After nearly a week of blocking broadcasts of Kenya's leading television stations, Kenyan authorities have relented and allowed most of the broadcasters to resume operations. In this series of articles, we profile the vibrant telecommunications market in Kenya.

See part 1part 2part 3part 4part 5part 6\

SECTION 3——Regulatory activities of Communications Authority of Kenya

In mid-August 2015, Kenya’s Business Daily reported that following a dispute which had already gone on for three years Airtel Kenya had gone to the Kenyan High  Court seeking to block another demand from the CA that it should pay $20.025 million spectrum fees before it could renew its operating licence. The dispute arose from the fact that in 2014 Essar’s YuMobile subsidiary in Kenya left the local mobile market and transferred its subscribers and licence to Airtel Kenya for about $6.9 million. According to Airtel, the CAK at that time promised to merge its operating licence with that of yuMobile, with the deal granting Airtel a lease to operate in the country until January 2025. However, subsequently under pressure from the Kenyan Treasury CAK had reneged on that agreement and come back to Airtel to demand KSh2 billion in licence fees.

The Safaricom row

In late September 2017, following accusations by Raila Odinga that Safaricom had deliberately delayed results of the August 8th presidential election, the CAK national communication regulator denied that there had been any such failures of transmission by any of the Kenyan mobile operators.

In late November 2017, DG Francis Wangusi of the CAK announced that following the failure of an earlier agreement between Kenyan operators to establish a common money transfer infrastructure by July 2017 the regulator now planned to make the interoperable wallet system mandatory in December 2017.

In mid-June 2017, Reuters reported that the Kenyan High Court had overturned a legal amendment that would have denied the right of the CA to manage competition in the sector

At the end of November 2017, Kenya’s Standard newspaper reported that Francis Wangusi  the DG of the CAK regulator was questioning the right of Safaricom to make deliveries of goods sold via its Masoko online e-commerce platform on the grounds that the operator’s existing license did not authorise such activities

On December 19th, 2017, Kenya’s Business Daily newspaper reported that the CA had announced that it was soliciting views from the general public on the minimum standards that should be set for internet devices.

As noted elsewhere the CA decided in January 2018 not to breakup Safaricom into separate telecommunications and financial businesses

In mid-January 2018 it was announced that CAK DG Francis Wangusi had been sent on leave for three months with effect from January 12th while an independent audit is being carried out on the Authority’s “structure, promotions and training” following alleged claims of malpractice in those functions.

This surprising and unexplained move has been interpreted by observers in many different ways. On January 23rd 2015 Wangusi was reappointed as CA DG for a second four year term but since then it seems that his relationships with the Kenyan Ministry of Communisations and the Kenyan government have deteriorated for several reasons. One reason may have been the fact that the CA had been unable to extract an additional licence fee of KSh 280 million from Airtel Kenya which was cash the Kenyan Treasury badly needed; secondly it was argued that the CA had awarded a license to Jamii Telecom to use some 700 MHz frequency far too cheaply and at a more questionable level had exercised extremely tight control on his resources refusing to fund some possibly boondoggle trips to symposia for some members of the Ministry.

However, it was announced that following a legal challenge by two students from the University of Nairobi who argued that the action of the CA Board in sending Wanqusi on involuntary leave was unconstitutional Kenya’s Labour Court had ordered a halt to that decision pending a review of the case originally scheduled for January 29th

CAK licences register lists by name
1. International Gateway Operators.=12
2. Submarine Cable Landing Rights Operators=3
3. Network Facilities Providers Tier 1=3
4. Network Facilities Providers Tier 2=23
5. Network Facilities Providers Tier 3=29
6. Application Service Providers=214
7. Content Service Providers=334
8。Dot KE SubDomain Name Registrar Service Providers=62
9. Business Process Outsourcing Services Providers=26
10. Telecommunication Contractors=533
11. Telecommunication Technical Personnel=509
12. Telecommunications Equipment Providers=526
13. Public Communication Access Centres=14

CAK Telecommunications Statistical Report for Q1 2017/18 ended September 30th 2017
The full 32-page report is available to the general public so the following is merely a summary of its main findings

Q4 2016/17
Q1 2017/18
Change %
Mobile subscriptions (mn).                    
Fixed subscriptions
Mobile penetration
Fixed telephone penetration
Number of mobile money subs: (mn).  
Number of MM transactions (mn)
Value of MM transactions (KSh bn)
Data internet subscriptions (mn).          
Of which mobile data (mn)
Of which terrestrial wireless
Of which fixed DSL
Of which fixed fibre optic
Of which fixed cable modem
Of which satellite + other

Available international capacity (Gbit/s)
Used international bandwidth (Gbit/s)
Internet penetration
Broadband penetration
Number of free-to-air TV channels
Number of radio FM stations

to be continued

Tuesday, February 20, 2018

AT&T seeds Akraino project for carrier-scale edge computing

The Linux Foundation will host a new Akraino project to create an open source software stack supporting high-availability cloud services optimized for edge computing systems and applications.

To seed the project, AT&T is contributing code designed for carrier-scale edge computing applications running in virtual machines and containers.

“This project will bring the extensive work AT&T has already done to create low-latency, carrier-grade technology for the edge that address latency and reliability needs,” said Jim Zemlin, Executive Director of The Linux Foundation. “Akraino complements LF Networking projects like ONAP in automating services from edge to core. We’re pleased to welcome it to The Linux Foundation and invite the participation of others as we work together to form Akraino and establish its governance.”

“Akraino, coupled with ONAP and OpenStack, will help to accelerate progress towards development of next-generation, network-based edge services, fueling a new ecosystem of applications for 5G and IoT,” said Mazin Gilbert, Vice President of Advanced Technology at AT&T Labs.

AT&T to launch mobile #5G in 12 cities this year

AT&T will launch commercial mobile 5G in a dozen cities this year. The first three announced cities are parts of Dallas, Atlanta and Waco, Texas.

The initial mobile 5G deployments this year will be based on 3GPP standards and operate over mmWave spectrum. AT&T has already deployed 5G Evolution technologies. Last fall, the company launched LTE-Licensed Assisted Access (LTE-LAA) technologies in parts of Indianapolis and are now live in parts of Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco.

“After significantly contributing to the first phase of 5G standards, conducting multi-city trials, and literally transforming our network for the future, we’re planning to be the first carrier to deliver standards-based mobile 5G – and do it much sooner than most people thought possible,” said Igal Elbaz, senior vice president, Wireless Network Architecture and Design. “Our mobile 5G firsts will put our customers in the middle of it all.”

AT&T also confirmed that its migration to SDN is on course. The target of virtualizing 55% of network applications in 2017 was achieved and the goal now is to reach 75% by 2020.

To further is progress, AT&T has opened a new 5G lab in Austin, Texas. The facility is hosting an Advanced 5G NR Testbed System (ANTS) for trialing unique and forward-looking features on a simulated 5G network for eventual standardization.

Cisco Crosswork automation promises ruthless simplification

Cisco introduced a new software portfolio to help Service Providers to automate large-scale networks.  The company is promising "ruthless simplification" for networks that to date have been burdened by manual operations leading to inefficiency, complexity and security vulnerabilities.

The new Cisco Crosswork Network Automation software offers a single point of integration with zero-touch telemetry, machine learning intuition, open APIs and automated actions.

The software release targets:

  • Cisco Crosswork Change Automation: Automated operations application that enables large-scale change and closed-loop control
  • Cisco Crosswork Health Insights: Smart sensors, smart alerts and smart remediation to monitor and optimize networks
  • Cisco Crosswork Data Platform: Featuring both an OpenSource and commercial-class data analytics platform
  • Cisco Crosswork Network Insights: Cloud-based analytics solution for solving large-scale routing issues
  • Cisco Crosswork Situation Manager: Machine learning-based event correlation with social operations featuring social tools such as chat functions to solve repair issues quickly 

Cisco said the new software extends capabilities of its Network Services Orchestrator (NSO), offering the industry's most comprehensive closed-loop multi-vendor, multi-domain automation solution, with service orchestration and automation applications that support third-party solutions with open APIs.

"Only Cisco can offer this comprehensive and holistic automation approach to solve challenges of today's mass scale infrastructure," said Jonathan Davidson, senior vice president and general manager, Service Provider Networking, Cisco. "Our primary goal for network automation is to help our customers turn growing pains into growing profit, and streamline operations so they can spend less time on tactical ‘firefighting' and more time on identifying and trialing new revenue streams."

Xtera completes interoperatibilty testing with Infinera

Xtera announced the successful completion of interoperability testing with Infinera, a provider of Intelligent Transport Networks. 

The tests included the transmission performance of Infinera’s XTS-3300 through Xtera’s wideband hybrid Raman-EDFA repeaters using 16-QAM modulation format.

The companies said the trials demonstrated the ability of Xtera’s Virtual Fiber Gateway (VFG) to allow multiple vendors’ equipment to independently share spectrum and proved the resilience of XTS-3300 to strong Line Monitoring Equipment (LME) signals.

“Today’s customers are looking for systems which combine the most advanced technology available; the move towards provision of disaggregated subsea solutions demonstrates this," explains Keith Henderson, Xtera’s Founder and Chief Executive Officer.  “The success of these interoperability tests will give customers comfort that selecting Xtera technology for their wet plant can provide them with a proven end-to-end solution using industry leading SLTE platforms.”

“Infinera is continually enhancing our solutions to deliver the best capacity-reach performance, and we lead the way in Open SLTE solutions,” adds Scott Jackson, Vice President, Subsea Business Group, Infinera.  “Adding compatibility with Xtera’s advanced line systems further illustrates our commitment to Open Systems and shows how Open SLTEs can eliminate risk while delivering the best system solutions for our customers.”

Qualcomm raises its bid for NXP to $127.50 per share in cash

Qualcomm increased its bid to acquires all outstanding shares of NXP Semiconductors to $127.50 per share in cash.

The previous price was $110.

Qualcomm also announced binding agreements with nine NXP stockholders who collectively own more than 28% of NXP’s outstanding shares (excluding additional economic interests through derivatives) to tender their shares at $127.50 per share.  These stockholders include funds affiliated with Elliott Advisors (UK) Limited and Soroban Capital Partners LP.

“Qualcomm’s leading SoC capabilities and technology roadmap, coupled with NXP’s differentiated position in Automotive, Security and IoT, offers a compelling value proposition.  We remain highly confident in our fiscal 2019 Non-GAAP EPS target of $6.75-$7.50, which includes $1.50 per share accretion from the acquisition of NXP.  With only one regulatory approval remaining, we are working hard to complete this transaction expeditiously.  Our integration planning is on track and we expect to realize the full benefits of this transaction for our customers, employees and stockholders,” stated Steve Mollenkopf, Chief Executive Officer of Qualcomm.

Broadcom rethinks its options with Qualcomm

Broadcom is evaluating its options following Qualcomm's decision to raise its offer price for NXP Semiconductors to $127.50 per share.

Broadcom said the price increase "demonstrates the Qualcomm board's disregard for its fiduciary duty to maximize value for Qualcomm stockholders" and that it transfer $6.2 billion of value from Qualcomm shareholders to NXP shareholders.                       

Coriant names Hossein Moiin as Strategic Executive Advisor

Coriant announced the appointment of Dr. Hossein Moiin as Strategic Executive Advisor.

Dr. Hossein Moiin is the former Executive Vice President, Chief Technology (and Strategy) Officer of Nokia and Nokia Siemens Solutions. He holds several degrees including a Ph.D., M.S. and B.S. from the University of California, Santa Barbara in Electrical and Computer Engineering. In addition to his role at Nokia, Dr. Moiin had leadership roles at BT, T-Mobile International, and Sun Microsystems.

Sweden’s Eastern Light deploys Ciena's GeoMesh

Sweden’s Eastern Light, which is building a series of new, international, submarine fiber-optic cable routes in northern Europe, will deploy Ciena’s GeoMesh solution.

Eastern Light is currently building the initial stretch of its network between Sweden (Stockholm) and Finland (Hanko, Helsinki and Kotka), providing the first new submarine fiber optic cable between the two Nordic capitals in more than a decade. The cable route is both geographically separated from and shorter than existing cables.

Ciena’s GeoMesh submarine network solution, an open architecture that integrates hardware, software and professional services, will be featured as a part of Eastern Light’s dark fiber product.

“Together with Eastern Light, we will provide key interconnection points for the Nordics that will help facilitate movement of global internet traffic in and out of the region. Ciena’s GeoMesh and optical innovations will give Eastern Light a new approach to support a smarter, faster and more adaptive network,” stated Keri Gilder, Vice President and General Manager, EMEA, Ciena.

Profile of the Telecoms market in Kenya - part 2

Preamble: After nearly a week of blocking broadcasts of Kenya's leading television stations, Kenyan authorities have relented and allowed most of the broadcasters to resume operations. In this series of articles, we profile the vibrant telecommunications market in Kenya.

See part 1part 2part 3part 4

SECTION 2——Kenyan connection to international cable systems

Kenya is already well-served by international backbone cable systems such as EASSy, LION-2, SEACOM and TEAMS with at least two more (PEACE and DARE)in the planning or early construction stage. The east coast of Africa has relatively much fewer major landing points than the west coast, the most important ones being Mtunzini, South Africa; Maputo, Mozambique; Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: Mombasa, Kenya; and Djibouti.

SEACOM —— This very early 17,000 km East Africa, Europe, and India cable system costing around $650 million and over 75% privately owned by African investors went live in July 2009 with African landing points in Mtunzini, South Africa; Maputo, Mozambique; Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; Mombasa, Kenya; and Djibouti; and connections in Mumbai, India and Marseille, France. The company has consistently upgraded its theoretical capacity to reportedly 12.8 Tbit/s and has also expanded its network via agreements with local and regional fibre and business partners in Europe and Africa, as well as with backhaul terrestrial networks from its landing points in Africa. It is also a supplier of business services using IP/MPLS, as well as Private Line, VPN, Internet Access and Cloud. In early September 2017, SEACOM CEO Byron Clatterbuck announced the appointment of Tony Tugee, previously head of Enterprise Sales and Retention at Safaricom, as head of the company’s business services in Kenya and also responsible for these activities in Rwanda and Uganda.

EASSy (East Africa Submarine cable System) —- This is a 10,000km, 10 Tbit/s fibre-pair submarine fibre-optic cable system based on Alcatel 100G technology. It links South Africa with Sudan via landing points in Mozambique, Madagascar, the Comoros, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti. It went live in Kenya in July 2010. The system is owned and operated by a group of 16 African (92%) and international (8%) telecommunications operators and service providers including Telkom Kenya. Investors in the EASSy system have also built terrestrial fibre backhauls to link the land-locked countries of the region to the cable.

LION 2 (=Lower Indian Ocean Network 2) -- This 3,000 km, 1.28 Tbit/s, $79 million cable links Mombasa (Nyali) to the 1,000km LION-1 network that connects Mayotte, Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius to the rest of the world. It was laid by France Telecom together with its subsidiaries Mauritius Telecom and Orange Madagascar, in partnership with Telcom Kenya. It went live in Kenya in Q1 2012. This cable was also designed to link to the 330 Gbit/s, SAT-3/WASC (=South Atlantic 3/West Africa Submarine Cable) going west to Europe via the Cape of Good Hope and to the 440 Gbit/s SAFE (South Africa Far East) cable going east to Penang Malaysia and thus provide an alternate route for secure broadband transmissions through Europe and Asia for all of the African countries in which the Group is located.

TEAMS (=The East Africa Marine System) -- This 5,000km, 120 Gbit/s fibre optic marine cable (design capacity=1,280Gbit/s), funded by the Government of Kenya and Kenyan operators who together own 85%(which is split roughly Safaricom =32.5%, Telkom Kenya=23%, Government of Kenya=20%, Kenya Data Networks=10%, Wananchi Group=6% and BCS Group=1.2%) and UAE-based operator Etisalat, which owns 15%. It links Mombasa to the tiny Emirate of Fujairah in the UAE and went live on October 1st 2009. TEAMS is connected to the Kenya national fiber backbone network and other major backhaul providers, thus extending the gigabit submarine capacity to the rest of the East African countries: Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania through cross-border connectivity arrangements and in Fujairah, a major international cable hub linking Africa, Europe and Asia it can interchange with 15 other global cables including FLAG, Africa 1, SEA-ME-WE 3,4 and 5 and others

Other projects whose status is unclear include:

AFRICA-1 -- In mid-April 2016, MTN Group, PCCW Global, Saudi Telecom Company (STC), Telecom Egypt (TE) and Telkom South Africa signed a MoU for the construction of a 3 fibre-pair core, 12,000km (plus up to 5,000km branches) submarine cable system designed to connect Africa with the Middle East and South Central Asia and provide onward connectivity to Europe with connections planned in South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and India . (NB This cable was originally proposed to be ready for service by late 2017 but this RFS date is now being quoted as Q4/2018 and so far not much more has been heard about this proposal)

LIQUID SEA High capacity SA/Middle East/Europe -- This cable project was announced December 2015 by Liquid Telecom. (See below)

PEACE (=Pakistan East Africa Cable Express) -- In early January 2018, Huawei Global Marine Systems Ltd announced that working with Huawei Technologies it was about to start the submarine route survey for this initially 6,200km, 60 Tbit/s, 200G DWDM-based cable system connecting Pakistan (in Gwadar and Karachi), Djibouti, Somalia and Kenya which would eventually span 13,000km, reaching South Africa and Egypt.

DARE (=Djibouti Africa Regional Express) --  In early January 2018 it was announced that a contract had come into force with TE SubCom as supplier for this 5,400km, two fibre-pair(150ch x100Gbit/s per pair) submarine cable system which will connect Djibouti and Mombasa, Kenya, with branches to three major coastal cities in Somalia, respectively Mogadishu, Berbera, and Bosaso, providing an alternative high-capacity and low-latency route to the Horn of Africa and East Africa. The DARE consortium is composed of Djibouti Telecom, Africa Marine Express(Kenya), TeleYemen and four Somali operators namely: Somtel Network, Golis Telecom Group, Hormuud Telecom, and Telesom. An additional optional branch is available to Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania).