Tuesday, June 23, 2015

Google Container Engine Enters Beta Along with Container Registry

Google Container Engine has entered public beta and the new Google Container Registry has become generally available.

Google Container Engine, based on the Kubernetes open source container orchestration system, provides tools for setting-up and managing a cluster of containers. Container Engine supports the common Docker container format. Google also announced pricing for once the free beta period is over: standard clusters that run up to 100 virtual machine nodes will be charged $0.15 per hour. Basic clusters of up to 5 VM nodes have no additional charge.

Google Container Registry is a private repository for storing container images.


AtScale Raises Funding for Business Intelligence Interface for Hadoop

AtScale, a start-up based in San Mateo, California, announced $7 million in series A funding for its business intelligence solution for Hadoop.

AtScale aims to is the glue between two fast-growing but currently disconnected markets: Big Data, estimated at $50B by Wikibon, and the Business Analytics industry, a space IDC predicts will reach $59.2B in 2018.

AtScale requires no data movement and no new visualization interface to act as the business interface for Hadoop. It provides a unified semantic layer that natively integrates with tools like Microsoft Excel, Tableau Software and Qliktech. The company says it accelerates query performance by 100 times.

The company is headed by Dave Mariani (CEO and founder), who previously was responsible for Yahoo!'s advertising and web properties. Mariani and his team processed over 30 billion events per day in Hadoop, making that data available to business users. Later, when at Klout, Mariani’s team managed a large-scale Hadoop cluster that powered a 1 trillion-row data warehouse.


IBM Offers Docker-based Containers on Bluemix

IBM is supporting containers based on Docker and built on Bluemix, its platform-as-a-service.

IBM said its enterprise customers will now be able to use the combination of IBM, Docker, Cloud Foundry and OpenStack to create a new generation of portable distributed applications.

Additionally, IBM claims the industry's best performance of Java on Docker. IBM Java is optimized to be two times faster and occupies half the memory when used with the IBM Containers Service. Moreover, as a Docker based service, IBM Containers include open features and interfaces such as the new Docker Compose orchestration services.

IBM is a member of the new Open Container Platform (OCP) Project.


Enigma Raises $28 Million for its Analytics Engine

Enigma, a start-up based in New York City, announced a $28.2 million Series B funding round to support its work in data discovery and analytics.

Enigma has developed an analytics engine that can search, discover and connect billions of previously unlinked public records from thousands of governments and organizations across the world. Enigma is now focusing these capabilities on the enterprise market, bringing its unique corpus of public data to bear on the problems and operational challenges facing the Fortune 500.

The funding round was led by New Enterprise Associates (NEA) with participation from Two Sigma Ventures and New York City Investment Fund, as well as existing investors American Express Ventures, Comcast Ventures and The New York Times Company.

“Enigma was created out of a realization that there is a massive amount of hidden knowledge that is locked away in various data silos and legacy systems -- when people have the tools to make sense of it, data can drive significant and impactful change,” said Marc DaCosta, co-founder and chairman of Enigma. “Abstract and Signals make it easy for organizations of every kind to liberate their own private data and unearth new insights that will allow them to make smart decisions, increase efficiency and compete more effectively.”


Verizon Completes Acquisition of AOL, building its Mobile Content Portfolio

Verizon Communications completed its previously announced acquisition of AOL for $50.00 per share in cash, a total cost of $4.4 billion.

AOL CEO Tim Armstrong continues to lead AOL operations after the closing, and Bob Toohey, president of Verizon Digital Media Services, will report to Armstrong, who in turn will report to Marni Walden, Verizon executive vice president and president of Product Innovation and New Businesses.


  • At the time the deal was announced in May 2015, Verizon said the AOL content further drives its LTE wireless video and OTT (over-the-top video) strategy. The agreement will also support and connect to Verizon’s IoT (Internet of Things) platforms, creating a growth platform from wireless to IoT for consumers and businesses.

Monday, June 22, 2015

Docker Adds Multi-Host, Software-Defined Networking to Containers

Docker is adding software-defined networking (SDN) capabilities to strengthen the portability of multi-container distributed applications across multi-host IP networks. Along with networking capabilities, Docker is adopting a dynamic plugin architecture that provides an opportunity for direct platform extensibility for technology partners and developers. For example, Docker native SDN can be “swapped” with a third-party product. Initial plugin capabilities are in the areas of networking and storage volumes and are available for use from Cisco, Microsoft, Midokura, Nuage Networks, Project Calico, VMware and Weave for SDN and ClusterHQ for storage volumes.

“By bringing SDN directly to the application itself and into the hands of the developers, Docker is driving multi-container application portability throughout the application development lifecycle,” said Solomon Hykes, CTO and chief architect of Docker. “Individual developers, through a single command, can establish the topology of the network to connect discrete Dockerized services into a distributed application. And then through a set of commands be able to inspect, audit and change topology ‘on the fly.’”

Docker's SDN capabilities, which were developed through its recent SocketPlane acquisition, are being extended through the company's three orchestration tools (Docker Machine, Docker Compose and Docker Swarm). The SDN functionality is tied into DNS (domain name system) and VXLAN (virtual extensible LAN). DNS ensures that Dockerized services will be able to communicate without modification. VXLAN enables the creation of portable, distributed networks that allow an application’s microservices to reside on any member of a Swarm, a native Docker cluster.

Docker Compose defines the containers that comprise the distributed application and how they are connected together. Through integration with Docker Swarm, the multi-container application can be immediately networked across multiple hosts and can communicate seamlessly across a cluster of machines with a single command. Docker Swarm now has working integration with Mesos scheduling.

Docker is also announcing a collaboration with Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS) to optimize the scheduling of Dockerized applications for Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), and provides a native cluster management experience for Docker users. Amazon ECS integration with Docker Compose and Docker Swarm will make it easier for customers to launch tasks on Amazon ECS using the same APIs across their local dev environments.

Docker said its SDN functionality provides a new level of consistency in terms of how applications are networked through their full lifecycle. A development team can initially define the topology of its distributed application, while the networking team can, at a later stage, apply the sophisticated networking policy necessary to run an application with the highest level of availability and security in production. Even with these sophisticated policies in place, an operations team will have the freedom of choice – without reconfiguring the Dockerized application – to move the application from their private data center to any cloud.


Docker Contributes its Runtime to Linux Foundation's New Open Container Project

The major developers of software containers for virtual machines, including Docker and CoreOS, agreed to collaborate on a new Open Container Project under the auspices of the Linux Foundation.

Docker agreed to donate the co
de for its software container format and its runtime, as well as the associated specifications.

Additional founders of the OCP include Amazon Web Services, Apcera, Cisco,EMC, Fujitsu Limited, Goldman Sachs, Google, HP, Huawei, IBM, Intel, Joyent, Linux Foundation, Mesosphere, Microsoft, Pivotal, Rancher Labs, Red Hat and VMware.

Docker said that over the past two years, its image format and container runtime have emerged as the de facto standard, with support across every major Linux distribution, Microsoft Windows, every major public cloud provider, all leading virtualization platforms and most major CPU architectures, including: x86, ARM, z and POWER System p.

Containers based on Docker’s image format have been downloaded more than 500 million times in the past year alone and there are now more than 40,000 public projects based on the Docker format.

“Containers are revolutionizing the computing industry and delivering on the dream of application portability,” said Jim Zemlin, executive director of the Linux Foundation. “With the Open Container Project, Docker is ensuring that fragmentation won’t destroy the promise of containers. Users, vendors and technologists of all kinds will now be able to collaborate and innovate with the assurance that neutral open governance provides. We applaud Docker and the other founding members for having the will and foresight to get this done.”


Infinera Adds 100GbE to Cloud Xpress, along with NETCONF/YANG, MACSec

Infineraannounced the addition of 100 gigabit Ethernet (GbE) client services in its Cloud Xpress family of metro Cloud platforms.

The Cloud Xpress family, which Infinera announced last September and began shipping in December, is designed specifically to address the needs of Cloud service providers, Internet content providers, Internet Exchange service providers, large enterprises and other large-scale datacenter operators.  It leverages the company's unique oPIC-500 metro-optimized photonic integrated circuit to deliver DWDM datacenter interconnect services up to 500 Gbps in a compact two rack unit chassis.

The new Cloud Xpress with 100 GbE extends the hyper-scale density, simplified operations and low power of the existing Cloud Xpress family that operators can use to easily deploy and scale their networks. With the addition of the new platform, the Cloud Xpress family now supports 10 GbE, 40 GbE and 100 GbE client-side interfaces to match customer specific requirements.

Along with the introduction of the new Cloud Xpress with 100 GbE, Infinera announced important enhancements to the Cloud Xpress family including MACsec encryption for improved security, NETCONF & YANG support for Software Defined Networking (SDN) and ease of use, and LLDP discovery protocols enabling datacenter automation. NETCONF & YANG support enables smooth integration into datacenter automation and management systems; LLDP protocol awareness for auto-discovery of adjacent switches and routers across the WAN supports efficient connectivity validation and troubleshooting, and MACsec provides end-to-end encryption to keep data secure.

“The Cloud Xpress platforms are purpose-built for the datacenter interconnect market,” said Stu Elby, senior vice president, Cloud network strategy and technology, Infinera. “Based on Infinera's unique PIC and super-channel technology, the Cloud Xpress provides scale and simplicity while utilizing little power.”


VMware to Support Docker Containers on its vSphere

VMware is previewing two key technologies for cloud-native apps running in Docker containers on VMware vSphere:

AppCatalyst --  an API and Command Line Interface (CLI)-driven hypervisor for replicating a private cloud locally on a desktop for building and testing containerized and microservices-based applications. The tool features Project Photon, an open source minimal Linux container host, Docker Machine and integration with Vagrant.

Project Bonneville -- software that enables the seamless integration of Docker container
s into the VMware vSphere platform and allow virtual administrators to use their existing operational and management processes and tools such as VMware vCenter Server without the need for new tools or additional training. Project Bonneville downloads containers from Docker Hub, and isolates and starts up each container in a virtual machine with minimal overhead using the Instant Clone feature of VMware vSphere. Together, Project Bonneville and Instant Clone will make virtual machines lightweight enough to support one container per virtual machine.

"Developers are rapidly adopting Docker to ship apps faster, whether to their private or public cloud infrastructures," said Scott Johnston, senior vice president of product, Docker. "VMware AppCatalyst and Project Bonneville will make it easier for developers and IT/operations teams alike to take advantage of existing management, compliance, networking and security processes and tools to run Dockerized applications."


Portworx Targets Container-Aware Storage

Portworx, a start-up based in Redwood City, California, unveiled its solution for providing elastic, scale-out block storage natively to Docker containers.

Portworx PWX Converged Infrastructure for Containers allows Dockerized applications to execute directly on the storage infrastructure. It also enables Dockerized applications to be scheduled across machines and clouds, making possible the deployment of stateful, distributed applications.

Key Portworx PWX features:

●     Container-Aware storage enabling data persistence across nodes, container-level snapshots, and storage policies to be applied at container granularity.

●     Self-service IT through Software Defined Storage.

●     Converged Storage ensuring that containers run on storage nodes to maximize I/O performance.

●     An Elastic Storage Orchestrator auto scales block storage to meet application needs and moves underlying storage blocks across nodes to optimize performance and ensure high availability.

In addition, Portworx announced an initial funding round of $8.5 million led by the Mayfield Fund.

“Both stateless and stateful applications can benefit from containerization. Our goal was to build storage infrastructure for Docker containers from the ground up with a keen focus on the new requirements that containers and service oriented architectures create,” said Murli Thirumale, CEO of Portworx.  “Building storage with container level granularity ensures storage policies can be applied at the container level, enabling greater agility, application state consistency, high availability, rolling upgrades, and high performance.  In getting to this point, we had to break a few cherished notions about storage and traditional architectures.”


Rancher Labs Launches its Container Infrastructure Platform

Rancher Labs, a start-up based in Cupertino, California, announced the beta release of its platform for running Docker in production. It includes a fully-integrated set of infrastructure services purpose built for containers, including networking, storage management, load balancing, service discovery, monitoring, and resource management. Rancher connects these infrastructure services with standard Docker plugins and application management tools, such as Docker Compose, to make it simple for organizations to deploy and manage containerized workloads on any infrastructure.

Key Rancher features:

  • Cross-host networking: Rancher creates a private software defined network for each user, allowing secure communication between containers across hosts and even clouds.
  • Container load balancing: Rancher provides an integrated, elastic load balancing service to distribute traffic between containers or services.
  • Storage Management: Rancher supports live snapshot and backup of Docker volumes, enabling users to backup stateful containers and stateful services.
  • Service discovery: Rancher implements a distributed DNS-based service discovery function with integrated health checking that allows containers to automatically register themselves as services, as well as services to dynamically discover each other over the network.
  • Service upgrades: Rancher makes it easy for users to upgrade existing container services, by allowing service cloning and redirection of service requests. This makes it possible to ensure services can be validated against their dependencies before live traffic is directed to the newly upgraded services.
  • Resource management: Rancher supports Docker Machine, a powerful tool for provisioning hosts directly from cloud providers. Rancher then monitors host resources and manages container deployment.
  • Native Docker Support: Rancher supports native Docker management of containers. Users can directly provision containers using the Docker API or CLI, as well as using Docker Compose for more complex application management functions. Third-party tools that are built on Docker API, such as Kubernetes, work seamlessly on Rancher.
  • Multi-tenancy and user management: Rancher is designed for multiple users and allows organizations to collaborate throughout the application lifecycle. By connecting with existing directory services, Rancher allows users to create separate development, testing, and production environments and invite their peers to collaboratively manage resources and applications.

“Much of the excitement around Docker is its use as a universal packaging and distribution format,” said Sheng Liang, co-founder and CEO of Rancher Labs. “However, as users deploy containers across different infrastructures, they quickly realize that different clouds, virtualization platforms and bare metal servers have dramatically different infrastructure capabilities. By building a common infrastructure backplane across any resource, Rancher implements an entirely new approach to hybrid cloud computing.”

Rancher Labs recently announced $10 million in Series A funding from Mayfield and Nexus Venture Partners.


Datawise.io Targets Network/Storage for Linux Containers

Datawise.io, a start-up based in San Jose, previewed its solution for delivering network and storage solutions for Linux containers.

Project 6 is software for deploying and managing Docker containers across a cluster of hosts, with a focus on simplifying on-premises environments. Datawise.io is making it easy to pack stateless and stateful applications onto the same environment by integrating Docker and Google’s Kubernetes with additional capabilities that provide:

  • Highly-available cluster management, to aggregate resources and coordinate operations across multiple hosts 
  • Simplified networking, so that containers maintain distinct IP network identities independently from hosts, and can easily locate each other  
  • Persistent and temporary storage volumes, to make efficient use of local disks and minimize the need for external storage 
  • Dynamic scheduling augmented with network and storage, so that resources available are efficiently utilized with minimal administration  

“At Datawise.io, we believe containers will revolutionize application development and datacenter operations,” said Jeff Chou, Datawise.io Co-Founder and CEO. “We are providing a preview of Project 6 now to get early community feedback which will be incorporated into other projects our team is working on.”


Red Hat Appoints Frank Calderoni as CFO

Frank Calderoni has joined Red Hat as executive vice president, operations and chief financial officer.

Most recently, Calderoni served as executive vice president and CFO at Cisco Systems for seven years. From 2004 through 2014, he managed the financial strategy and operations of a company with more than 72,000 employees and total revenue for fiscal year 2014 of $47 billion. During his tenure at Cisco, the company went from $22 billion in revenue to $47 billion, and grew annual profits from $0.62 per share to $1.49 per share. With more than 30 years of experience, he has led high-performing finance organizations at global software and technology companies including Cisco, QLogic Corp., SanDisk Corp., and IBM.

Calderoni succeeds Red Hat executive vice president and CFO Charlie Peters, whose planned retirement was announced in December 2014, and who will remain with Red Hat until July 31.


Verizon Offers Pay Increase in Labor Negotiations

Verizon is offering a pay increase to approximately 38,000 Verizon East Wireline Employees as part of a three year labor package it presented to the Communications Workers of America and the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

Verizon said its offer includes several key proposals:

Wages -- Provided there is a signed agreement by Aug. 1, upon ratification of a new contract there would be a 2 percent wage increase effective Aug. 2, 2015; a 2 percent increase one year later; and a $1,000 lump sum payment in the third year. The average annual salary and benefit package for a Verizon associate in the East is $130,000.  Verizon technicians in the New York City/Long Island region currently have an average total wage-and-benefit package worth in excess of $160,000 a year.

Pensions -- Pension-eligible associates would be given a choice of continuing to earn pension benefits under the defined benefit plan with some limitations and forgoing the existing 401(k) company match, or opting for the enhanced 401(k) plan currently offered to management employees (which includes a bigger company match and a profit-sharing contribution) with a frozen pension benefit. With the exception of union-represented employees hired since Oct. 28, 2012, employees under these collective bargaining agreements currently have both a defined benefit pension plan AND a 401(k) savings plan with a generous company match, a benefit structure that's from another era.

Healthcare -- Negotiating cost controls for the company's healthcare plans is essential. The cost of medical coverage for an East associate and one or more family members currently averages nearly $20,000 a year. In one of the company's East plans, the annual cost for this coverage is over $23,000 annually. By contrast, the national average for family healthcare coverage is about $16,800. The company is proposing an increase of $8.10 per week next year for individual healthcare premiums. Other reasonable cost controls are also important to help keep this Wireline business unit competitive.

Workforce management -- The company is seeking more flexibility in terms of managing the workforce consistent with customer demands.

"More than ever, we need contractual changes that position us to compete with new and emerging technologies," said Tami Erwin, president of Verizon's Consumer and Mass Business unit. "American consumers are communicating in new and innovative ways. The way we work and respond to our customers demands flexibility. Our contract rules and provisions need to be updated to reflect those changes."


Sunday, June 21, 2015

Blueprint: 5G and the Need For SDN Flow Optimization

by Scott Sumner, VP Solutions Development and Marketing, Accedian Networks

As more subscribers run bandwidth-intensive applications from a variety of devices, mobile access networks are increasingly strained to maintain quality. According to Ericsson, annual mobile traffic throughput is predicted to increase from 58 exabytes in 2013 to roughly 335 exabytes by 2020. It’s clear that brute-force bandwidth over-provisioning is no longer an economically feasible solution.

What strategies can operators implement to meet growing quality of experience (QoE) expectations, especially in the face of finite spectrum?

Part of the answer is improvements to 4G networks using technologies like LTE-A, LTE unlicensed, and voice over LTE (VoLTE). Just in the mobile space alone, Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA) expects that 4G networks—as fast as they can be deployed—will reach their limits within five years, making this option a stopgap method and a stepping stone on the way to bigger and better things.

5G networks and standards are the inevitable answer, taking bandwidth another order of magnitude forward, supporting 1000% device densification and the seamless coexistence of the Internet of Things (IoT). Getting there requires understanding the real-world dynamics at play, the role of Software Defined Networking (SDN) in 5G, and requirements for performance assurance in a virtualized world.

5G Visions and Realities

As it is now envisioned, 5G will come with further tightening of performance requirements, approaching sub-millisecond latency bounds, minimal packet loss, and higher availability limits approaching 99.95%. These sound great in theory, but in the real world are challenging to achieve.

Complicating planning and development efforts is the fact that 5G proposals like those published recently by GSMA and NGMN focus on multiple end use cases or applications, each with quite different performance demands on the network: some high bandwidth, some low latency, some both, some neither. These competing applications necessitate exceptional quality of service (QoS), meeting the diverse requirements of each service, while maintaining the most efficient use of precious capacity and infrastructure.

Together, all of this requires a new approach to networking and performance assurance.

SDN’s Role in 5G

It’s generally agreed on that SDN is implicit to 5G. SDN separates control and data planes, allowing multiple frequency bands (such as millimeter wave combined with 4G spectrum) to be implemented without requiring changes to the control infrastructure. It also enables the sophisticated traffic delivery over multiple backhaul paths involved in coordinated multipoint (CoMP) arrangements, where multiple carriers simultaneously link to the same user equipment (UE).

SDN control enables spin-up of virtual networks that address each application specifically—including the virtual network functions (VNFs) chained together to deliver the service. The coexistence of these application-specific virtual networks, along with path decisions based on their performance requirements, are unique “layers” in the network, summed up in the NGMN-coined term “network slicing.”

Performance must be assured between chained VNFs, as well as
between endpoints relying on ultra-low latency interaction.

However, the SDN controllers required to support multi-carrier aggregation, dynamic traffic engineering, and performance optimization require a real-time feed of network performance to optimize QoE. Without this visibility, traffic may be sent over routes with the fewest hops, not those with the lowest latency, for example. Optimizing performance for critical applications also means lower-priority services should use less-desired routes, to free up capacity. Performance optimization applications and self-organizing networks (SONs), therefore, require immediate, continuous visibility into the ‘network state.’

Performance Assurance in a Virtualized World

In a multi-slice, multi-application network that is continuously tuned by SDN and application optimization controllers, a real-time performance view—of Layer 2 and 3 metrics such as utilization, capacity, packet loss, and latency; and QoE metrics like VoLTE MOS—must cover every link and service to provide adequate performance feedback.

Optimal multi-path backhaul pathing relies on tight coordination between SDN controllers and an instrumentation layer.

To achieve this ‘instrumentation layer’ over all slices and sections of their network, operators can build on the performance monitoring capabilities and standards already supported by their network infrastructure, supplementing with cost-efficient virtualized test points.

Specific requirements for this level of network performance assurance include:

Performance assurance attributes characterized as real-time, adaptive, directional, ubiquitous, embedded, and open/standards-based with microsecond (┬Ás) precise delay metrics—ensuring that ultra-tight synchronization and control signaling are delivered as required.

Monitoring metrics covering per-flow bandwidth utilization, available capacity, packet loss, latency, delay variation, and QoS/QoE KPIs for VoLTE and applications.

Network visibility that’s ubiquitous, covering all locations and layers, with “resolution on demand” to avoid drowning in the data lake of big analytics.

Affordable technology is now available to help operators gain this needed network visibility. For example, advances in NFV-based instrumentation replicate the full functionality of dedicated test sets. Powerful test probes in smart SFPs and miniaturized modules allow full network performance assurance coverage at savings up to 90% compared with legacy methods.

Using network-embedded instrumentation, LTE-A networks can approach 5G performance with proper optimization:

1. Assess network readiness for incremental capacity and service upgrades.
2. Localize performance pinch points to focus upgrades and optimization efforts.
3. Monitor utilization trends and variation, and tune the network with real-time feedback to get the most out of existing infrastructure.
4. Monitor performance over the migration phase to NFV / SDN for troubleshooting and to optimize network configuration as traffic load increases.

The path to 5G relies on optimizing latency and increasing network capacity, while allowing the assured coexistence of applications as diverse as the Internet of Things (IoT), security, streaming 8K video, and multi-caller VoLTE sessions. SDN flow optimization is the foundation needed to meet those requirements. Visibility into the network state is the first step. Operators can deploy this today and pave an assured path to the higher-capacity networks of tomorrow.

About the Author

Scott Sumner is VP of solutions marketing at Accedian Networks. He has extensive experience in wireless, Carrier Ethernet and service assurance, with over 15 years of experience including roles as GM of Performant Networks, Director of Program Management & Engineering at MPB Communications, VP of Marketing at Minacom (Tektronix), and Aethera Networks (Positron / Marconi), Partnership and M&A Program Manager at EXFO, as well as project and engineering management roles at PerkinElmer Optoelectronics (EG&G).   He has Masters and Bachelor degrees in Engineering (M.Eng, B.Eng) from McGill University in Montreal, Canada, and completed professional business management training at the John Molson School of Business, the Alliance Institute, and the Project Management Institute.

About Accedian Networks 

Accedian Networks is the Performance Assurance Solution Specialist for mobile networks and enterprise ­ to­ data center connectivity. Open, multi­vendor interoperable and programmable solutions go beyond standard ­based performance assurance to deliver Network State+™, the most complete view of network health. Automated service activation testing and real­ time performance monitoring feature unrivalled precision and granularity, while H­QoS traffic conditioning optimizes service performance. Since 2005, Accedian has delivered platforms assuring hundreds of thousands of cell sites globally.www.Accedian.com

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By open, we mean not controlled by a single party, says Dan Pitt

Customers love open... but "open" has many different flavors and varieties, says Dan Pitt, Executive Director of the Open Networking Foundation.

"We've been strong advocates of open SDN for a long time. "

"By open, we mean not just published, but not controlled by a single party. It is good that people are opening up and publishing. There are open standards, open specifications, and open interfaces.  It is important that they be community-defined."


Everything that can be virtualized will be virtualized, says @Infinera's Stuart Elby

Open networking brings experts from across the industry together to focus on common problems, says Stuart Elby, SVP, Data Center  Business Group at Infinera.  This leads to faster time-to-market, more use cases, and more security, as more eyes can look out for vulnerabilities.

Disruptive innovations first occur through proprietary solutions but are later subsumed by the open source community.  We are on the verge of seeing that for SDN and NFV.

Everything that can be virtualized will be virtualized. However, no one has figured out how to virtualize photons. This means there are still real optical layer with photons moving through ROADMs, transponders and amplifiers.


In Memorium: Ralph Roberts, founder of Comcast, 1920-2015

Comcast mourned the passing of its Founder and Chairman Emeritus, Ralph J. Roberts, who died of natural causes at age 95.

Ralph Roberts founded Comcast in 1963 with the purchase of a 1,200-subscriber cable system in Tupelo, Mississippi.  Over the following decades, he grew the company from its humble roots as a small, regional cable company into the global Fortune 50 media and technology leader. The company went public in 1972.

In addition to his wife, Ralph is survived by four of his children and their spouses, along with eight grandchildren.  His son, Brian L. Roberts, serves as Comcast's CEO.


See also