Monday, May 13, 2013

GreenTouch: 90% Reduction in Network Energy Consumption by 2020

The goal of a 90% reduction in network energy consumption by 2020 compared to a 2010 baseline is achievable, according to a new study published by the GreenTouch Consortium, a global research initiative dedicated to dramatically improving network energy efficiency.  This remarkable cut in electricity can be achieved while accounting for the dramatic increase in network traffic over this same decade.

GreenTouch said its study applied advanced modeling to better understand potential network operations in 2020 in comparison to those in 2010.

Key findings include:

  • Mobile networks stand to benefit the most from energy efficiency efforts, as they are the most inefficient and yet the fastest growing networks in terms of data volumes.
  • Mobile networks could realize potential energy efficiency improvements of up to 1043 times.
  • Energy efficiencies in fixed-line and core networks are also expected, but will be less dramatic. The modeling shows potential improvements in fixed access networks of 449 times and improvements in the core network of 95 times. Core networks are already relatively energy-efficient, so further gains will be less significant and much harder to achieve than with mobile networks.

Some of the key technologies that could deliver the biggest efficiency gains include:

  • Infrastructure sharing by mobile network operators.
  • Small cell deployments in cities.  Less energy is needed to transmit data over shorter distances.
  • Discontinuous transmission during periods without traffic.
  • Bit interleaved passive optical networking (Bi-PON), a new protocol that would use TDM to more efficiently move packets to their intended destination.
  • Dynamic allocation of resources in the network core to diurnal traffic fluctuations.
  • Power models for energy efficient hardware and network equipment.  Gains from Moore's Law.

Additional technologies that could add even further gains beyond those calculated by this study include the separation of the control plane from the data plane, and further optimization of Content Delivery Networks (CDNs).

“We are extremely proud of the progress we’ve made in our first three years, yet there is still much more we can do to improve efficiencies and effectively reinvent technologies in the name of environmental stewardship,” said Thierry Van Landegem, chairman, GreenTouch. “Reducing energy by 90 percent is conservative as we have many projects underway whose effects were not taken into account in that number.”

The GreenTouch Consortium, which was founded in 2010, has grown to include a wide range of participants, spanning the research community, academia, global service providers and networking equipment vendors.

GlobeNet and Equinix Optimize Brazil-US Connectivity

GlobeNet, a wholly owned subsidiary of Oi (formerly Brasil Telecom), has extended its low latency network into Equinix’s MI3 International Business Exchange (IBX) data center in Boca Raton, Florida, opening up the fastest IP traffic route from the United States to Brazil.

Equinix’s MI3 facility serves as a carrier-neutral network access point for GlobeNet to connect its low latency, subsea cable route from Equinix’s SP2 facility in São Paulo, Brazil.

Equinix said undersea cables are typically terminated at a landing station.  The new arrangement with GlobeNet brings its undersea fiber connectivity directly into the Equinix data center in Boca Raton.
The companies noted that roughly 75 percent of all network traffic emanating from Latin America enters the United States via Miami. Globally, MI3 has the sixth highest Internet capacity and is a key hub location for domestic and international traffic routes. As a result, Equinix and its Brazilian subsidiary ALOG are perfectly positioned to serve high-bandwidth events, such as the upcoming 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

"Fueled by the convergence of telecommunications infrastructures, MI3 is becoming a popular connectivity hub for global carriers, Internet service providers and other Internet-related businesses and organizations. We are thrilled to have GlobeNet expand into MI3, opening up a new bilateral submarine connectivity opportunity for major network providers," stated Jim Poole, general manager, Global Networks & Mobility at Equinix.

Samsung Tests Adaptive Array Transceiver for Gigabit Speed Cellular

Samsung Electronics is testing adaptive array transceiver technology operating in the millimeter-wave Ka band at a frequency of 28 GHz at a speed of up to 1.056 Gbps to a distance of up to 2 kilometers.  The company said the technology will be the core of future 5G networks.

The new technology sits at the core of 5G mobile communications system and will provide data transmission up to several hundred times faster than current 4G networks.

Samsung's adaptive array transceiver test combines 64 antenna elements, enabling the system to overcome the radio propagation loss at millimeter-wave bands, much higher than the conventional frequency bands ranging from several hundred MHz to several GHz.
Samsung said plans to accelerate the research and development of 5G mobile communications technologies, including adaptive array transceiver at the millimeter-wave bands, to commercialize those technologies by 2020.

OIF Begins Work on SDN Framework

The Optical Internetworking Forum has started work on an SDN Framework document to better focus the conflicting and confusing requirements that vary in the industry for Transport SDN.

"The OIF is working on defining a framework for the industry to clarify the interfaces required in the Transport SDN ecosystem, leveraging input from carriers,” said Jonathan Sadler, Tellabs and the OIF’s Technical Committee chair. “In addition, the OIF is advancing work in 100G interconnect and has completed implementation agreements that focus on technology from past interoperability demonstrations.  The Forum continues to drive technology efforts that are necessary for providing higher speeds and lower costs for the industry."

The OIF is also working on plans for an SDN networking interoperability demonstration for 2014 and will showcase technology outlined in the SDN Framework document.

Some other highlights from the OIF's recent quarterly meeting:

At the Physical and Link Layer (PLL), the OIF is undertaking two projects addressing Thermal Interface requirements and CFP2 Coherent Optics Transceiver module. The first project will specify a module-type agnostic thermal interface between anoptical module and a host bringing consistency and standardization to the industry.  A second new project focuses on a Coherent Optics Transceiver module in a CFP2 form factor and will help maximize faceplate density and minimize first install costs on metro/regional line-side transport or switching platforms.

OIF members completed and approved the Next Generation Interconnect Framework white paper as well as implementation agreements on Multilink Gearbox and a Multilayer Amendment for E-NNI. The Multi-link Gearbox 2.0 implementation agreement defines a 4x25G lane configuration comprised of 20 MLG lanes and an 8x25G lane configuration comprised of 40 MLG lanes.  Both are configured to carry multiple 10GBASE-R signals or a single 40GBASE-R signal.  This IA will serve as an important infrastructure element in high rate systems.

A second IA, the Multilayer Amendment defines generic signaling and routing extensions to the OIF’s E-NNI 2.0 implementation agreement in support of multilayer networks.  Based on technology demonstrated in past interoperability tests the Multilayer Amendment provides the ability for the control plane to determine the lowest cost way to deliver a service using different technologies.

Level 3 Announces Carrier Cloud Voice with Alianza

Level 3 Communications is introducing a Carrier Cloud Voice solution for CLECs, wireless carriers, cable multiple system operators (MSOs) and telcos.

The service, which is offered in partnership with Alianza, is a complete outsourced voice solution for service providers that are looking for ways to add voice but avoid significant up-front investment and ongoing operational costs. The joint solution combines Level 3's Enhanced Local Service and Alianza's cloud-based voice platform, which includes a hardened set of APIs for back-office integration, billing and service management.

"Voice is an important part of many established service bundles, but it is an expensive investment that consumes a lot of internal resources to manage," said Shaun Andrews, Level 3's senior vice president of Global Voice Services. "This complete, carrier-grade solution allows service providers to reliably realize the benefits of a cloud-based model. With several key customers already purchasing our joint solution, we know this value proposition resonates in the marketplace."

"The next generation voice evolution has proven to be challenging due to network cost and complexity," commented Brian Beutler, CEO and co-founder of Alianza. "Working with Level 3, we have developed a complete turnkey solution with break-through economics that provides operators with a clear business case for simplifying voice delivery to their customers."

Tekelec Updates Policy Server (PCRF)

Tekelec announced a new release of its Policy Server (PCRF) with the following capabilities:

New Rules Engine:  Provides the ability to create and quickly introduce flexible offers using dynamic quotas, such as promotional quotas spanning weeks, days or hours within an existing plan month;
roll-over data within any time frame (e.g. day to day or month to month); quotas that adjust or start over in the middle of a service plan.  In addition, the Policy Server allows operators to replicate multiple groups of policy rules, increasing the speed of new service creation.

Voice over LTE  (VoLTE): Tekelec’s Policy Server gives service providers flexibility to request different amounts of bandwidth depending on the type of device and service. By allocating bandwidth based on the devices requesting it, operators can zero-rate voice traffic over LTE networks, manage voice sessions on IMS networks and implement quality of service controls for VoLTE calls.

Enhanced support for Wi-Fi: The Policy Server recognizes when devices are on Wi-Fi networks, which allows operators to differentiate charging of services based on network access type.

Analytics: Business intelligence such as which applications are most commonly used on certain brand names or types of devices, or patters on machine-to-machine (M2M) device usage.

Prioritize communications for first responders during emergencies: The Policy Server supports the Enhanced Multimedia Priority Service (eMPS) standard in the 3GPP Release 10 specification. This prioritizes the quality of service for 911 calls and interactions to and from federal, state and local government officials.

"Service providers are entering an era of new opportunities to transform the delivery of mobile data services and partner with advertisers, businesses and Wi-Fi network providers,” said Houck Reed, vice president of product management and marketing at Tekelec. "Tekelec’s Policy Server provides the underlying technology to usher in new flexible offers and partnerships, and give service providers ThinkingNetworks™ that align network resources with subscriber needs and revenue drivers.”

  • In March 2013, Oracle agreed to acquire Tekelec, which supplies network signaling, policy control, and subscriber data management solutions for telecom operators.  Financial terms were not disclosed. Tekelec’s main solutions include its Diameter and SS7 Network Signaling platform, its Policy Control platform and its Subscriber Data Management system, which tracks dynamic subscriber data. The Diameter and SS7 Network Signalling offers integrated applications such as Local Number Portability, Equipment Identity Register, 3G to Voice over LTE Migration, load balancing, congestion control, and protocol mediation.
  • In February 2013, Oracle agreed to acquire Acme Packet, a leading supplier of session border controllers, for $29.25 per share in cash, representing an enterprise value of $1.7 billion net of cash. Acme Packet supplies session delivery solutions to both carriers and enterprises. Oracle said it would make Acme Packet a core offering in its Oracle Communications portfolio to enable customers to more rapidly innovate while simplifying their IT and network infrastructures.

BICS to Upgrade European Network with Infinera DTN-X

BICS, a global provider of international wholesale carrier services, has selected the Infinera DTN-X platform to upgrade its Pan-European network.

The BICS Pan-European network stretches across 9,000 kilometers of fiber in Europe and linking through a cable landing station in Marseille into the EIG & SEA-ME-WE 4 submarine cable systems.  BICS offers international wholesale services through a network of 100 points of presence in 55 cities and 33 countries across the globe.

The Infinera DTN-X delivers 500 Gbps long haul super-channels, enabling BICS to deliver flexible and cost effective 100 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) services.
"The Infinera DTN-X allows BICS to provide flexible solutions and ensures a faster service implementation, translating into a shorter time to market for our customers," said Johan Wouters, SVP Capacity Business Management at BICS. "This new platform will enable the aggregation of multiple high speed services on a single OTN interface. The advanced control plane offers the possibility of self-provisioning for high capacity services making BICS the perfect network outsourcing partner."

TeliaSonera International Carrier Launches One of the World's Largest IPX Platforms

TeliaSonera International Carrier (TSIC) announced the launch of TeliaSonera IPX running over its 100G, fiber backbone with 200 Points of Presence (PoPs) worldwide.

Available to both TeliaSonera group and external operators, at launch it carries TSIC’s roaming and signaling portfolio and VoIPX. This will be supplemented with LTE signaling services later in 2013 and a comprehensive suite of additional IPX services to follow.
"Once people experience higher quality, they won’t be willing to go back. IPX is crucial to meeting the growing demands of mobile customers," says Veysel Aral, President of TeliaSonera Eurasia. "This is an important launch and shows TeliaSonera’s commitment to quality."

SK telesys Joins Symmetricom's SyncWorld Ecosystem

SK telesys, the wireless system manufacturer of SK Group Korea, has integrated Symmetricom' SoftClocks with its small cell solutions.

SK telesys produces and supplies repeaters that act as the core devices for telecom providers' CDMA/WCDMA services. The company's two small cell products, the SLN-FN080 and SLN-FD080, have integrated Symmetricom's SCr100 Small Cell SoftClock solution using network time protocol (NTP) signals.

SK telesys will join Symmetricom's SyncWorld Ecosystem Program in the Small Cells category.

"With the successful integration and induction as a Small Cells partner with Symmetricom, mobile operators can gain confidence that the various integrated components of our residential small cells solution will work at optimal performance," said Dr. IH Sohn, Director at SK telesys. "For telecom service providers, having Symmetricom's timing and synchronization element is critical, especially as they evolve to 4G/LTE networks."


Sunday, May 12, 2013

FCC Plans Transition to All-IP Infrastructure

The FCC's Technology Transitions Policy Task Force (Task Force) authorized a 6-month trial to examine providing interconnected VoIP providers direct access to telephone numbers.  The goal is to speed the transition away from TDM to all-IP infrastructure while ensuring resiliency.

The FCC is seeking comment and data on several issues:

  • First, the FCC is seeking comment on a VoIP interconnection trial that would gather data to determine whether there are technical issues that need to be addressed and gather information relevant to the appropriate policy framework.
  • Second, regarding migration of the nation’s emergency calling (911) system to Next Generation 9-1-1 (NG911), the FCC is seeking comment on a trial that will assist the Commission, state, local and Tribal governments, and Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) in a few geographic areas to answer important technical and policy questions to accelerate the transition. Beyond NG911, the FCC is also seeking comment on how a trial could elicit data on the impact of network resiliency and public safety more broadly as consumers migrate to wireless and IP-based services that are dependent on commercial power.
  • Third, because at least one provider has proposed serving consumers with wireless service in place of wireline service in certain geographic areas, the FCC is seeking comment on a trial that would analyze the impact of doing so and, in particular, focus on the consumer experience and ensure that consumers have the ability to move back to a wireline product during the trial.

"Trials are a smart approach that we have deployed before. Transitions to modern fiber and IP-based broadband networks, and the increased deployment of wireless technology, have the potential to unleash substantial economic benefits for our country, and advance national priorities like education and health care. The ongoing transitions must be handled in a way that advances the Commission’s vital longstanding goals of competition, universal service, consumer protection and public safety," stated outgoing FCC chairman Julius Genachowski.

Jerry James, CEO of COMPTEL, stated: "The most critical aspect of the transition of the PSTN to IP technology that needs to be addressed is interconnection between competitors and the ILEC on an IP basis for the purpose of exchanging managed voice traffic. COMPTEL believes Commission affirmation of competitors’ interconnection rights on an IP basis under the Act, which we initially asked to be addressed in 2008, would achieve the new, innovative services it wishes to unleash at a faster pace than a trial. Nonetheless, COMPTEL believes the outcome of any trial on the transition to IP should include an IP-to-IP interconnection arrangement that complies with the standards set forth in the Act and will be available for opt-in as part of interconnection agreements."

Huawei's Ren: No IPO for Next 5-10 Years

Huawei issued comments from its CEO and Founder, Mr. Ren Zhengfei following his first ever press briefing outlining the company's business ambitions and global cyber security challenges.

Two key comments from Mr. Ren:
  • None of his family will be the next CEO of the company
  • Huawei will not go public in the next 5-10 years. 
"As a leading global company, Huawei attaches great importance on cyber-security," Mr. Ren said. "Cyber-security is a significant challenge facing our industry globally today. The solution must involve governments, telecommunications operators and ICT companies, including Huawei and our peers, as well as end users coming together to take collaborative, solutions-oriented, multi-lateral approaches to mitigate the risk."

"Huawei equipment is almost non-existent in networks currently running in the U.S. We have never sold any key equipment to major U.S. carriers, nor have we sold any equipment to any U.S. government agency. Huawei has no connection to the cyber security issues the U.S. has encountered in the past, current and future."

Infonetics: Slow and Steady Growth Forecast for Carrier Ethernet

The global carrier Ethernet equipment market declined 3% to $34 billion in 2012, following a 13% spike in 2011, but is forecast to grow to $39 billion in 2017, according to a new report from Infonetics.

Some highlights of the report:

  • Spending on IP edge routers totaled $9.4 billion in 2012, the most of any carrier Ethernet equipment segment
  • Asia Pacific currently accounts for the greatest portion of carrier Ethernet equipment revenue, followed by EMEA (Europe, the Middle East, and Africa); by 2017, Infonetics expects North America will have passed EMEA to become the 2nd largest carrier Ethernet market.
  • Infonetics projects Carrier Ethernet equipment ports will top 95 million worldwide by 2017, with 10 Gigabit Ethernet growing fast to pass 1 Gigabit Ethernet.

“Carrier Ethernet is now a permanent, inseparable part of service provider networks, and the market has reached a steady state of investment as a result,” notes Michael Howard, principal analyst for carrier networks and co-founder of Infonetics Research. “Though spending on legacy technologies like SONET/SDH and WDM will decline, investment in IP routers, carrier Ethernet switches, and Ethernet access devices will continue to rise, driven by the move to IP NGN and, of course, growing traffic—particularly video traffic.”

BT Reports Flat or Declining Revenue, Increased Profit

BT reported flat but stable revenue for its most recent fiscal quarter – a significantly improved performance for the company.  EBITDA was up 4% and earnings per share up 22%.  Some other key points:

  • Fibre available to more than half of UK homes and businesses and roll out accelerating in rural areas
  • Fibre customer base more than doubled, now at more than 1.5m
  • BT Global Services order intake of £2.0bn
  • The decline in underlying revenue excluding transit this year reflects lower revenue from calls and lines, the tough conditions in Europe and the financial services sector and regulatory price reductions.

"We are doing what we said we would do. In an environment where it is easier to focus only on the short-term, we are investing in our future and delivering growth in profits and dividends. We are driving fibre across the UK, launching high quality sports channels, investing in the high-growth regions of the world and will use our wi-fi capabilities and 4G spectrum to make sure our customers will be the best connected. We have created around 3,000 new jobs in the UK over the last year to support these investments.

"Our focus on improving efficiency across the business will allow us to continue to deliver strong financial results whilst making these investments. Our good performance this year is reflected in our dividend which is up 14% for the year.

Primus Telecom Sells North American Retail Operations for $129M

Primus Telecommunications Group agreed to sell its North American retail telecommunications operations to affiliates of York Capital Management, for approximately US$129 million.

PTGi's retail telecommunications operations in Canada provides international and domestic long-distance voice, local, broadband, Ethernet, hosted-VoIP and wireless services to SMEs, residential customers and government agencies. In the United States, PTGi provides international and domestic voice, data, business-class broadband, hosted IP-PBX, SIP trunking and VoIP services to SMEs and residential customers, and sales personnel offer business customers voice, data and hosted IP-PBX services.

Neil S. Subin, Chairman, stated, "This transaction represents a meaningful outcome of the board's strategic process. The Board is considering alternatives for the deployment of the proceeds from this sale." 

PTGi (Primus Telecommunications Group, Incorporated), which is based in McLean, Virginia, owns and operates its own global network of next-generation IP soft switches, and media gateways. Founded in 1994, PTGi is headquartered in McLean, Virginia.

Clustrix Raises $16.5 Million for Scale-out SQL for the Cloud

Clustrix, a start-up based in San Francisco with branch offices in Seattle and London, raised $16.5 million in funding for its scale-out SQL database engineered for the cloud.

In April, the company released Clustrix 5.0 on Amazon Web Services (AWS). The AWS offering is the next step in the company’s cloud strategy, following database-as-a-service announcements with Rackspace, GoGrid, Equinix, and BlueBoxGroup.

Clustrixsaid it is able to achieve a 50x performance advantage compared to legacy scale-up databases on AWS.

“The combination of big data and cloud computing has broken the legacy database, creating an industry transition to new scale-out database platforms.” said Robin Purohit, CEO at Clustrix. “The Clustrix scale-out SQL database is battle-tested in mission-critical customer applications all over the world, providing unprecedented levels of performance, scalability, and real-time analytics. In our next phase of growth, we are making it easy for developers to build their next great application on our platform.”

The funding round was led by current investors Sequoia Capital, U.S. Venture Partners, ATA Ventures, and Don Listwin. The company has raised $46.5 million to date in three rounds.

Cloudera and Splunk Partner on Big Da

Splunk and Cloudera, which specializes in Apache Hadoop in the enterprise, formed a strategic alliance for big data analytics across the enterprise. The alliance ensures bi-directional integration to easily and reliably move data between Splunk Enterprise and Hadoop.

“Splunk’s mission is to make data accessible, usable and valuable to everyone. By working together, Splunk and Cloudera deliver big data analytics that span the needs of any organization,” said Bill Gaylord, senior vice president of business development, Splunk. “The integration of Splunk Enterprise and CDH through Splunk Hadoop Connect provides customers a way to easily and reliably transfer data between the systems. This allows customers to easily use Splunk's best-in-class machine data ingestion and management to deliver data to Hadoop, or ingest data into Splunk from Hadoop, such as the output of Hadoop MapReduce jobs and easily analyze and visualize that data.”

NSN Enhances its Intelligent Self Organizing Networks

Nokia Siemens Networks is rolling enhancements to its intelligent Self Organizing Networks (iSON) to help operators manage self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing.

New capabilities for Nokia Siemens Networks Tools include:

  • an Automated WCDMA Site Creation content pack, which extends the LTE version launched in February 2013. The content pack gives operators full visibility of the automated configuration of 3G sites, with regular status updates for engineering personnel. The time needed for base station configuration can be reduced from hours to minutes.
  • Security for LTE networks  -- security certificates are factory installed in the base station and configuration of the authenticated base stations in the operator network is fully automatic as part of the SON auto-connection and auto-configuration process.
  • New Mobility Management for LTE content pack, which provides support for seamless configuration and follow-up of SON operations related to LTE mobility management through a single interface. The new content pack reduces the set-up time for SON operational processes from 30 minutes to 5 minutes, and also provides full control and visibility of the automated process.
  • A New Element Outage Resolution content pack, which controls the automatic resolution of network failures in LTE, WCDMA and GSM networks. The self-healing capability detects base station outages and dormant cells and triggers common resolutions, such as restarting an element to re-establish connections.
  • A full set of professional services, ranging from customization to full outsourcing from our global delivery centers, to integrate iSON capabilities and the related content packs in operator networks.

“Automation is important to simplify network operations, and these extended functions now make the deployment and use of automation easier than ever. The enhancements give operators visibility on the impact of automated processes on network performance – and provide clear evidence that all network changes are working as expected,” said Peter Patomella, head of the operations support systems (OSS) business, Nokia Siemens Networks.

ShoreTel's Peter Blackmore Announces Retirement

Peter Blackmore, president and CEO of ShoreTel, announced his intention to retire as soon as a successor is announced.

"It has been a privilege to work with the ShoreTel team,” said Mr. Blackmore. "I am confident that the company is well-positioned in both the cloud and premise unified communications markets. With recent changes to our organizational and cost structure, we can now scale with a model positioned for profitability, enhancing our objective of delivering improved shareholder value."

Thursday, May 9, 2013

Open Compute Project to Develop Top-of-rack Switch

The Open Compute Project, which was launched by Facebook to build better data center systems, confirmed plans to develop an open, OS-agnostic top-of-rack switch.  The effort will be led by Najam Ahmad, who runs the network engineering team at Facebook.

Companies that are supporting the effort include Big Switch Networks, Broadcom, Cumulus Networks, Facebook, Intel, Netronome, OpenDaylight, the Open Networking Foundation, and VMware.

In a blog posting, Frank Frankovsky, Chairman/President, Open Compute Project, says the goal of this undertaking is to create "an open, disaggregated switch will enable a faster pace of innovation in the development of networking hardware; help software-defined networking continue to evolve and flourish; and ultimately provide consumers of these technologies with the freedom they need to build infrastructures that are flexible, scalable, and efficient across the entire stack."

AT&T's Project VIP On Track - Small Cells and DAS

AT&T is on-track to bring LTE to 90% of its wireless footprint to year-end and Project VIP will extend the network significantly in both the wireless and wireline domains, said Bill Smith, President of AT&T Network Operations, speaking at the Jeffries 2013 Global Technology, Media and Telecom Conference.  AT&T's CAPEX budget for 2013 is in the $21 billion range.
Some notes from his presentation.

  • Project VIP aims to reach 10,000+ macro cell sites by year-end 2015, along with 1,000 DAS and 40,000+ small cell sites.
  • Project VIP also aims to bring fiber to 1 million new business locations by year-end 2015.
  • In 2012, AT&T installed 800 distributed antenna systems and deployed 81,000 new antennas.
  • More than 90% of traffic on AT&T's wireless network is now carried of its enhanced backhaul (Ethernet)
  • AT&T now has more than 33,000 Wi-Fi hotspots.
  • AT&T's plan is to move to small cells that have UMTS + LTE + Wi-Fi

  • AT&T's network carries 43.4 petabytes on average business day