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Monday, September 10, 2001

Tutorial: An Introduction to MPLS


Rick Gallaher, CISSP, is owner of Dragonfly Associates LLC http://dragonfly-associates.com and author of  Rick Gallaher's MPLS Training Guide


September 10, 2001

In this article, we will examine how an MPLS network is constructed and how MPLS data flows.  In future MPLS Tutorials, we will examine:
In order to assist your further study, I have provided an acronym list and a list of related URLs to accompany each article.  

INTRODUCTION

What is this new protocol that leading telecommunication experts claim “will take over the world”?  Well, you can rest your worried mind – IP and ATM are not on death row.  In fact, it is my belief that MPLS will breathe new life into the marriage of IP and ATM.

The best way to describe the function of MPLS is by using an analogy of a large national firm with campuses located throughout the United States.  Each campus has a central mail-processing point through which mail is sent around the world, as well as to its other campuses.  Since its beginning, the mailroom has been under orders to send all intercampus correspondence via standard first-class mail.  The cost of this postage is calculated into the company’s operational budget.


KEY ACRONYMS
MPLS Multiple Protocol Label Switching; also,
Multiple Protocol Lambda Switching
LER Label Edge Router
LSR Label Switch Router
LIB Label Information Base
LSP Label Switch Path
 FEC Forward Equivalence Class; also, Functional Equivalent Class
 
MPLS HIGHLIGHTS
bullet
MPLS allows for the marriage of IP to layer 2 technologies (such as ATM) by overlaying a protocol on top of IP networks. 
 
bullet
Network routers equipped with special MPLS software process MPLS labels contained in the Shim Header.
 
bullet
Raw IP traffic is presented to the LER, where labels are pushed; these packets are forwarded over LSP to LSR where labels are swapped.
 
bullet
At the egress to the network, the LER removes the MPLS labels and marks the IP packets for delivery. 
 
bulletIf traffic crosses several networks, it can be tunneled across the networks by using stacked labels.

However, for months now, some departments have been complaining that they require overnight delivery and package-tracking services.  As a manager, you set up a system to send three levels of mail between campuses – first class, priority, and express mail.  In order to offset the increased expense of the new services, you bill the departments that use these premium services at the regular USPS rate plus 10%.

Priority and express mail are processed by placing the package into a special envelope with a distinctive label.  These special packets with distinctive labels assure the package priority handling and tracking capability within the postal network.  In order to avoid slowdowns and bottlenecks, the postal facilities in the network created a system that uses sorting tables or sorting databases to expedite these special packets.  

The Construction of an MPLS Network

In an IP network, you can think of routers as post offices or postal sorting stations.  Without a means to mark, classify, and monitor mail, there would be no way to process different classes of mail.  In IP networks, you find a similar situation.  Figure 1 below shows a typical IP network with traffic having no specified route.



Figure 1: An IP Network

In order to designate different classes of service or service priorities, traffic must be marked with special labels as it enters the network.  Special routers called LER (Label Edge Routers) provide this labeling function (Figure 2).  The LER converts IP packets into MPLS packets, and MPLS packets into IP packets.  On the ingress side, the LER examines the incoming packet to determine whether the packet should be labeled.  A special database in the LER matches the destination address to the label.  An MPLS shim header (Figure 3) is attached and the packet is sent on its way.


Figure 2: IP Network with LERs and an IP packet with Shim header attached


To further explain the MPLS shim header, let's look at the OSI model.  Figure 3 (a) shows OSI layers layer 7 through layer 3 (L7-L3) in red and layer 2 (L2) in yellow.  When an IP packet (layers 2-7) is presented to the LER, it pushes the shim header (b) between layers 2 and 3.  Note that the shim header is neither a part of layer 2 or layer 3; however, it provides a means to relate both layer 2 and layer 3 information.

The Shim Header (c) consists of 32 bits in four parts – twenty bits are used for the label, three bits for experimental functions, one bit for stack function, and eight bits for time to live (TTL).  It allows for the marriage of ATM (a layer-2 protocol) and IP (a layer-3 protocol).


Figure 3: The MPLS Shim Header and Format
A shim header is a special header placed between layer two and layer 3 of the OSI model. The shim header contains the label used to forward the MPLS packets.

In order to route traffic across the network once labels have been attached, the non-edge routers serve as LSR (Label Switch Routers).  Note that these devices are still routers.  Packet analysis determines whether they serve as MPLS switches or routers.

The function of LSR is to examine incoming packets.  Providing that a label is present, the LSR will look up and follow the label instructions, and then forward the packet according to the instructions.  In general, the LSR performs a label swapping function.  Figure 4 shows LSR within a network. 

Figure 4: LSR (Label Switch Routers)

Paths are established between the LER and the LSR.  These paths are called LSP (Label Switch Paths).  The paths are designed for their traffic characteristics; as such, they are very similar to ATM path engineering.  The traffic-handling capability of each path is calculated.  These characteristics can include peak traffic load, inter-packet variation, and dropped packet percentage calculation.

Figure 5 shows the LSP established between MPLS-aware devices.  Because MPLS works as an overlay protocol to IP, the two protocols can co-exist in the same cloud without interference.


Figure 5: LSP (Label Switch Paths)

BRIEF REVIEW

To review the construction of an MPLS network, the LER adds and/or removes (pops or pushes) labels.  The LSR examines packets, swaps labels, and forwards packets, while the LSP are the pre-assigned, pre-engineered paths that MPLS packets could take.

Right about now, you may be asking whether the advantages of MPLS are worth the extra effort.  Consider for yourself:

Your company uses a database application that is intolerant of packet loss or jitter.  In order to ensure that your prime traffic will get through, you have secured a high-cost circuit, and you have over-provisioned the circuit by 60%.  In other words, you are sending all of your mail as “express mail” for $13.50.

With MPLS, you can have the LER sort your packets and place only your highest priority traffic on the most expensive circuits, while allowing your routine traffic to take other paths.  You have the ability to classify traffic in MPLS terms, and your LER sorts traffic into FECs (Forward Equivalence Classes).  Figure 6 shows the network now broken down into FECs.




Figure 6: An MPLS Network with Two FECs

Data Flow in an MPLS Network

The simplest form of data “flow” occurs when IP packets are presented to the ingress router (acting as the LER)
(Figure 7). 





Figure 7: Ingress LER Attaches a Shim Header

Much like the mail room that classifies mail to your branch location into routine, priority and overnight mail, the Label Edge Router classifies traffic. In MPLS, this classification process is called forward equivalence class, or FEC for short.

The LER are the big decision points. LER are responsible for classifying incoming IP traffic and relating the traffic to the appropriate label.  This traffic classification process is called the FEC (Forward Equivalence Class).
LER use several different modes to label traffic.  In the simplest example, the IP packets are “nailed up” to a label and an FEC using preprogrammed tables such as the example shown in Table 1.

Destination / IPPort
Number
FECNext HopLabel
Instruction
199.50.5.180Bx.x.x.x.80
Push
199.50.5.1443Ay.y.y.y 17Push
199.50.5.125IPz.z.z.z(Do nothing; native IP)

Table 1: LER Instruction Set

When the MPLS packets leave the LER, they are destined for LSR where they are examined for the presence of labels.  The LSR looks to its forwarding table (called a Label Information Base [LIB] or a connectivity table) for instructions.  The LSR will swap labels according to the LIB instructions.  Table 2 shows an example of a Label Information Base.



Label/In Port In Label/Out Port/OutFECInstruction Next Hop
80B40BBSwap
17A18CASwap
Table 2: A Label Switch Router’s Label Information Base (LIB)
Figure 8 demonstrates the LSR performing its label-swapping functions.


At the egress of the network, the LER removes the MPLS header and forwards the packet to an IP network.  Label swapping greatly simplifies MPLS packet flow.

The LER performs many packet analysis functions:  mapping layer 2 to MPLS; mapping MPLS to layer 3; and classifying traffic with great granularity.  In addition, the LER decides what traffic becomes an MPLS packet. One decision-making method is called “triggered mode.” Using this method, when a predetermined number of packets are addressed to a single location within a specified time window, the router will determine that there is a "traffic stream," and will reroute the stream of traffic for MPLS processing.

Even further enhancements and flexibility are available to MPLS by using the label-stacking method, as shown in figure 9.

Consider this scenario:  You own Network 1; however, your traffic must proceed across a network that is not owned by your company (Network 2). You must ensure that Network 2 handles your traffic according to your service-level agreements (SLA), but they are not using the same label criteria as your company. 

In this case, you would stack labels and build a tunnel across Network 2. This configuration would preserve the integrity of your network's labels while allowing the other network to operate independently.


Figure 9 Stacked Labels with Tunneled Network

IN SUMMARY

The concept of processing by labels is not new; it has been implemented successfully for the US Postal Service, Federal Express, and many other package-handling systems. In networking, this process has been used in Frame Relay and ATM. What is new is that the ubiquitous, uncontrolled Internet Protocol (IP) is now under a new set of rules where it can be classified, managed, and policed across any type of network.  

A nice feature about MPLS is that it is not a fork lift modification.  In some cases it only requires software modifications to existing IP routers.  For a fraction of the expense of installing a dedicated network, MPLS allows IP traffic to be classified, marked and policed while providing a method of layers two and layers 3 exchanging data.

MPLS does not replace IP – it supplements IP so that traffic and be marked, classified and policed.  With the use of MPLS, end-to-end quality of service can finally be achieved.



More on MPLS


Rick Gallaher, CISSP, is owner of Dragonfly Associates LLC http://dragonfly-associates.com and author of  Rick Gallaher's MPLS Training Guide

Monday, December 17, 2001

Tutorial: MPLS Network Reliance and Recovery

Rick Gallaher, CISSP, is owner of Dragonfly Associates LLC http://dragonfly-associates.com and author of  Rick Gallaher's MPLS Training Guide

December 17, 2001

This series of tutorials has defined MPLS into two operations: data flow and signaling. The previous tutorials have addressed these subjects with special attention given to signaling protocols CR-LDP and RSVP-TE. To complete this series, this article will cover the failure recovery process.

Vocabulary
  • Back-up Path: the path that traffic takes if there is a failure on the primary path.
  • Fast ReRoute (FRR): a protection plan in which a failure can be detected without a need for error notification or failure signaling (Cisco).
  • Link Protection: a backup method that replaces the entire link or path of a failure.
  • Make Before Break: a procedure in which the back-up path is switched in before the failed path is switched out. For a small period of time, both the primary and back-up paths carry the traffic.
  • Node Protection: a backup procedure in which a node is replaced in a failure.
  • Pre-provisioned Path: a path in the switching database on which traffic engineering has been performed in order to accommodate traffic in case of a failure.
  • Pre-qualified Path: a path that is tested prior to switchover that meets the quality of service (QoS) standards of the primary path.
  • Primary Path: the path through which the traffic would normally progress.
  • Protected Path: a path for which there is an alternative back-up path.
  • Rapid ReRoute (RRR): a protection plan in which a failure can be detected without a need for error notification or failure signaling (Generic).
Introduction

Around the country you will find highways under repair.  A good many of these highways have bypass roads or detours to allow traffic to keep moving around the construction or problem areas.  Traffic rerouting is a real challenge for highway departments, but they have learned that establishing detour paths before construction begins is the only way they can keep traffic moving (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Traffic Detour

The commitment to keeping traffic moving has been a philosophy in voice and telephone communications since its inception. In a telephony network, not only are detour paths set-up before a circuit is disconnected (make before break), but the back-up or detour paths must have at least the same quality as the links that are to be taken down for repair. These paths are said to be pre-qualified (tested) and pre-provisioned (already in place).
Historically in IP networking, packets would find their own detours around problem areas; there were no pre-provisioned bypass roads. The packets were in no particular hurry to get to the destination. However, with the convergence of voice onto data networks, the packets need these bypass roads to be pre-provisioned so that they do not have to slow down for the construction or road failures.


The Need for Network Protection

MPLS has been primarily implemented in the core of the IP network. Often, MPLS competes head-to-head with ATM networks; therefore, it would be expected to behave like an ATM switch in case of network failure.
With a failure in a routed network, recovery could take from a few tenths of a second to several minutes. MPLS, however, must recover from a failure within milliseconds – the most common standard is 60 ms. To further complicate the recovery process, an MPLS recovery must ensure that traffic can continue to flow with the same quality as it did before the failure. So, the challenge for MPLS networks is to detect a problem and switch over to a path of equal quality within 60ms.

Failure Detection

There are two primary methods used to detect network failures: heartbeat detection (or polling) and error messaging. The heartbeat method (used in fast switching) detects and recovers from errors more rapidly, but uses more network resources.  The error-message method requires far less network resources, but is a slower method.  Figure 2 shows the tradeoffs between the heartbeat and error-message methods.



Figure 2: Heartbeat vs. Error Message

The heartbeat method (Figure 3) uses a simple solution to detect failures. Each device advertises that it is alive to a network manager at a prescribed interval of time. If the heartbeat is missed, the path, link, or node is declared as failed, and a switchover is performed.  The heartbeat method requires considerable overhead functions - the more frequent the heartbeat, the higher the overhead. For instance, in order to achieve a 50ms switchover, the heartbeats would need to occur about every 10ms.



Figure 3: Heartbeat Method

The other failure detection system is called the error-message detection method (Figure 4).  When a device on the network detects an error, it sends a message to its neighbors to redirect traffic to a path or router that is working.  Most routing protocols use adaptations of this method. The advantage of the error message is that network overhead is low. The disadvantage is that it takes time to send the error-and-redirect message to the network components. Another disadvantage is that the error messages may never arrive at the downstream routers.



Figure 4: Error Message

If switchover time is not critical (as it has historically been in data networks), the error-message method works fine; however, in a time-critical switchover, the heartbeat method is often the better choice.

Reviewing Routing

Remember that, in a routed network (Figure 5), data is connectionless, with no real quality of service (QoS). Packets are routed from network to network via routers and routing tables. If a link or router fails, an alternative path is eventually found and traffic is delivered. If packets are dropped in the process, a layer-4 protocol such as TCP will retransmit the missing data.


Figure 5: Standard Routing

This works well when transmitting non-real time data, but when it comes to sending real-time packets, such as voice and video, delays and dropped packets are not tolerable. To address routing-convergence problems, the OSPF and IGP working groups have developed IGP rapid convergence, which reduces the convergence time of a routed network down to approximately one second.  

The benefits of using IGP rapid convergence include both increased overhead functions and traffic on the network; however, it only addresses half of the problem posed by MPLS.  The challenge of maintaining QoS parameter tunnels is not addressed by this solution.

Network Protection

In a network, there are several possible areas for failure. Two major failures are link failure and node failure (Figure 6). Minor failures could include switch hardware, switch software, switch database, and/or link degradation.


Figure 6: Network Failures

The telecommunication industry has historically addressed link failures with two types of fault-tolerant network designs: one-to-one redundancy and one-to-many redundancy.  Another commonly used network protection tactic utilizes fault-tolerant hardware. 

To protect an MPLS network, you could pre-provision a spare path with exact QoS and traffic-processing characteristics.  This path would be spatially diverse and would be continually exercised and tested for operations. However, it would not be placed online unless there were a failure on the primary protected path.  

This method, known as one-to-one redundancy protection (Figure 7), yields the most protection and reliability, but its cost of implementation can be extreme.



Figure 7: One-to-One Redundancy

A second protection scheme is one-to-many redundancy protection (Figure 8).

In this method, when one path fails, the back-up path takes over. The network shown in the Figure 8 can handle a single path failure, but not two path failures.



Figure 8: One-to-Many Redundancy


A third protection method is having fault tolerant switches (Figure 9).  In this design, every switch features inbuilt redundant functions – from power supplies to network cards. The drawing shows redundant network cards with a back-up controller.  Take note that the one item in common, and not redundant, is the cross-connect tables. If the switching data becomes corrupt, the fault tolerant hardware cannot address this problem.


Figure 9: Fault Tolerant Equipment

Now that you know the three network protection designs (one-to-one, one-to-many, and fault-tolerant hardware) and two methods for detecting a network failure (heartbeat and error message), we need to talk about which layers and protocols are responsible for fault detection and recovery.

Remembering that the further the data progresses up the OSI stack, the longer the recovery will take, it makes sense to attempt to detect failures at the physical level first.

MPLS could rely on the layer-1 or layer-2 protocols to perform error detection and correction.  MPLS could run on a protected SONET ring, or it could use ATM and Frame Relay fault-management programs for link and path protection. In addition to the protection MPLS networks could experience via SONET, ATM or Frame Relay, IP has its recovery mechanism in routing protocols, such as OSPF or IGP.

With all these levels of protection already in place, why does MPLS need additional protection? Because there is no protocol that is responsible for ensuring the quality of the link, tunnel, or call placed on an MPLS link. The MPLS failure-recovery protocol must not only perform rapid switching, but it must also ensure that the selected path is pre-qualified to take the traffic loads while maintaining QoS conditions. If traffic loads become a problem, MPLS must be able to offload lower-priority traffic to other links.

Knowing that MPLS must be responsible for sending traffic from a failed link to a link of equal quality, let’s look at the two error-detection methods as they apply to MPLS.

MPLS Error Detection

The LDP and CR-LDP protocols contain an error message type-length value (TLV) in their protocols to report link and node errors.  However, there are two main disadvantages to this method: (1) it takes time to send the error message, and (2) since LDP is a connection-oriented message, the notification message may never arrive if the link is down.

An alternative approach to error detection is to use the heartbeat method that is found at the heart of the RSVP-TE protocol. RSVP has features that make it a good alternative for an error- message model. RSVP is a soft-state protocol that requires refreshing – i.e., if the link is not refreshed, then the link is torn down. No error messages are required, and rapid recovery (rapid reroute) is possible if there is a pre-provisioned path.  If RSVP-TE is already used as a signaling protocol, the additional overhead needed for rapid recovery is insignificant.

Rapid reroute is a process in which a link failure can be detected without the need for signaling. Because RSVP-TE offers soft-state signaling, it can handle a rapid reroute.

Many vendors are using the RSVP-TE for rapid recovery of tunnels and calls, but in doing so, other MPLS options are restricted. For example, labels are allocated per switch, not per interface. Another restriction is that RSVP-TE must be used for a signaling protocol.

RSVP-TE Protection

In RSVP-TE protection, there are two methods used to protect the network: link protection and node protection. 

In link protection, a single link is protected with a pre-provisioned backup link. If there is a failure in the link, the switches will open the pre-provisioned path (Figure 10).


Figure 10: RSVP-TE with Link Protection

In a node failure, an entire node or switch could fail, and thus, all links attached to the node will fail.  With node protection, a pre-provisioned tunnel is provided around the failed node (Figure 11).



Figure 11: RSVP-TE with Node Protection

Thrashing Links

A discussion about fault-tolerant networks would not be complete without mentioning thrashing links. Thrashing is a phenomenon that occurs when paths are quickly switched back and forth.  For example: In a network with two paths (primary and back-up), the primary path fails and the back-up path is placed in service. The primary path self-heals and is switched back into service, only to fail again.

Thrashing is primarily caused by intermittent failures of primary paths and pre-programmed switchback timers. In order to overcome thrashing, the protocols and the switches must use hold-down times. For example, some programs allow one minute for the first hold-down time and set a trigger so that on the second switchback, operator intervention is required to perform a switchover and to prevent thrashing.

Summary

Building a fault-tolerant, rapid recovery network is new to the data world. One reason is that data communications philosophy is that the data will get there or it will be retransmitted. This philosophy does not work well in voice networks. To make MPLS competitive with ATM and on par with voice networks, rapid recovery must be implemented.

There are several methods under study to provide network protection. Vendors recommend approaches that are supported by their overall design concepts and specifications; therefore, failure recovery is not necessarily interoperable among different vendors. Design teams must carefully select vendors with interoperable recovery methods.

The failure recovery method that has received much favorable press lately is RSVP-TE. The soft-state operations of RSVP-TE make it very suitable for failure recovery.  One reason is that the polling (reservation/path) functions are already in place for signaling.  If RSVP-TE is already used for a signaling protocol, it makes a logical selection to protect your MPLS tunnels.

MPLS Resource Sites:

A Framework for MPLS Based Recoveryhttp://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-mpls-recovery-frmwrk-03.txt
Surviving Failures in MPLS Networkshttp://www.dataconnection.com/download/mplsprotwp.pdf 
MPLS Links Pagehttp://www.rickgallaher.com/   (click on the MPLS Links tab)
Network Traininghttp://www.globalknowledge.com

Special Thanks

I would like to thank Ben Gallaher, Susan Gallaher, and Amy Quinn for their assistance, reviewing, and editing.

A special thank you to all those who assisted me with information and research on the MPLSRC-OP /mail list, especially: Robert Raszuk.


Rick Gallaher, CISSP, is owner of Dragonfly Associates LLC http://dragonfly-associates.com and author of  Rick Gallaher's MPLS Training Guide



Monday, December 10, 2001

Tutorial: Advanced MPLS Signaling

Rick Gallaher, CISSP, is owner of Dragonfly Associates LLC http://dragonfly-associates.com and author of  Rick Gallaher's MPLS Training Guide

December 10, 2001

In previous tutorials, we talked about data flow (Tutorial #1) and label distribution (Tutorial #2). This article discusses MPLS signaling and the ongoing conversations regarding signaling choices.

Vocabulary
  • Soft State – A link, path, or call that needs to be refreshed to stay alive.
  • Hard State – A link, path, or call that will stay alive until it is specifically shut down.
  • Explicit Route – A path across the Internet wherein all routers are specified. Packets must follow this route, and they cannot detour.
  • CR-LDP – Constraint-based Routing over Label-Distribution Protocol.
  • RSVP-TE – The Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), modified to handle MPLS traffic-engineering requirements.
  • IntServ – Integrated Service; allows traffic to be classified into three groups: guaranteed, controlled load, and best effort.  IntServ works together with RSVP protocol.
Your commute to work every day is a long one, but with all the congestion it seems to take forever. New lanes have been added to the highway, but they are reserved as express lanes – sure, they will cut your travel time in half, but you will have to carry extra passengers in order to use them. You decide, finally, to try it; you decide to carry four additional passengers in order to use the express lane.  You are permitted to pass through the express-lane gate and scurry on your way to and from work.

The four passengers do not cost much more to transport than yourself alone, and they really allow you to increase the speed and lower the rate of interference from the unpredictable and impossible-to-correct behavior of the routine traffic. (Figure 1)




Figure 1: Backed Up Express Lane
One day you enter the express lanes and find that they are all in a state of bumper-to-bumper congestion. You look around and find routine traffic in the express lanes. You are angry, of course, because you had guaranteed express lanes, and the routine traffic is required to stay off the express lanes unless they are carrying extra passengers.   As you slowly progress down your road, you see that construction has closed down the routine lanes and diverted the traffic to your express lanes. So, what good is it to be special if regular traffic is diverted to your express lanes?



Traffic Control in MPLS Networks
In networking, MPLS is express traffic that carries four (4) additional bytes of payload.  For taking that effort, it gets to travel the express lanes.  But, as is too often the case in the actual freeway, your nice, smooth-running express lane is subjected to routine traffic being rerouted onto it, causing congestion and slowdowns.
Remember that MPLS is an overlay protocol that overlays MPLS traffic on a routine IP network. The self-healing properties of IP may cause congestion on your express lanes. There is no accounting for the unforeseen traffic accidents and reroutes of routine traffic onto the express lanes. The Internet is self-healing with resource capabilities, but the problem becomes this: how does one ensure that paths and bandwidth that are reserved for their packets do not get overrun by rerouted traffic? (Figures 2 –4)



Figure 2: MPLS with Three Paths


In Figure 2, we see a standard MPLS network with three different paths across the Wide- Area Network.  Path A is engineered to the 90thpercentile of bandwidth of peak busy hour; Path B is engineered to the 100th percentile bandwidth of peak busy hour; finally, Path C is engineered to the 125th percentile of peak busy hour.  In theory, Path A will never have to contend with congestion, owing to sound network design (including traffic engineering). In other words, the road is engineered to take more traffic than it will receive during rush hour. The C network, however, will experience traffic jams during rush hour, because it is designed not to handle peak traffic conditions.

The Quality of Service (QoS) in Path C will have some level of unpredictability regarding both jitter and dropped packets, whereas the traffic on Path A should have consistent QoS measurements.





Figure 3: MPLS with a Failed Path C

In Figure 3, we see a network failure in Path C, and the traffic is rerouted (Figure 4) onto an available path – Path A.  Under these conditions, Path A is subjected to a loss of QoS criteria. To attain real QoS, there must be a method for controlling both traffic on the paths and the percentage of traffic that is allowed onto every engineered path.



Figure 4: MPLS with Congestion Caused by a Reroute


To help overcome the problems of rerouting congestion, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and related working groups have looked at several possible solutions.  This problem had to be addressed both in protocols and in the software systems built into the routers.

In order to have full  QoS, a system must be able to mark, classify, and police traffic. From previous articles, we see how MPLS can classify and mark packets with labels, but the policing function has been missing. Routing and label distribution establishes the Label Switch Paths, but still it does not police traffic and control the load factors on each link.

New software engines, which add management modules between the routing functions and the path selector, allow for the policing and management of bandwidth. These functions, along with the addition of two protocols, allow for traffic policing.






Figure 5: MPLS Routing State Machines
The two protocols that give MPLS the ability to police traffic and control loads are RSVP-TE and CR-LDP.

RSVP-TE

The concept of a call set-up process, wherein resources are reserved before calls are established, goes back to the signaling-theory days of telephony.  This concept was adapted for data networking when QoS became an issue.

An early method designed by the IETF in 1997, called Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), was designed for this very function.  The protocol was designed to request required bandwidth and traffic conditions on a defined or explained path.  If the bandwidth was available under the stated conditions, then the link would be established.
The link was established with three types of traffic that were similar to first-class, second-class and standby air travel – the paths were called, respectively: guaranteed load, controlled load and best-effort load. 



RSVP, with features added to accommodate MPLS traffic engineering, is called RSVP-TE. The traffic-engineering functions allow for the management of MPLS labels or colors.





Figure 6:  RSVP-TE Path Request

In Figures 6 and 7, we see how a call or path is set up between two endpoints. The target station requests a specific path, with detailed traffic conditions and treatment parameters included in the path-request message.  This message is received, and a reservation message, reserving bandwidth on the network, is sent back to the target. After the first reservation message is received at the target, the data can start to flow in explicit paths from end to end.




Figure 7: RSVP-TE Reservation

This call set-up, or signaling, process is called “soft state,” because the call will be torn down if it is not refreshed in accordance with the refresh timers. In Figure 8, we see that the path-request and reservation messages continue for as long as the data is flowing.






Figure 8: RSVP-TE Path Set Up



Some early arguments against RSVP included the problem of scalability: the more paths that were established, the more refresh messages would be created, and the network would soon become overloaded with refresh messages. Methods of addressing this problem include not allowing the traffic links and paths to become too granular, and aggregating paths.


To view an example of an RSVP-TE path request for yourself, you can download a protocol analyzer and sample file from www.ethereal.com.

Protocol Analyzer: http://www.ethereal.com/download.html 
Sample file: Go to http://www.ethereal.com/sample/ and click on "MPLS-TE.cap" (sample 15). 

After downloading, install ethereal and open the MPLS-TE.Cap file.

In the sample below (Figure 9), MPLS captures MPLS-TE files. In the capture, we can see the traffic specifications (TSPEC) for the controlled load.



Figure 9: RSVP-TE Details

CR-LDP

With CR-LDP (Constraint-based Routing over Label Distribution Protocol), modifications were made to the LDP protocol to allow for traffic specifications. The impetus for this design was to use an existing protocol LDP and give it traffic-engineering capabilities.  A major effort by Nortel Networks was made to launch the CR-LDP protocol.

The CR-LDP protocol adds fields to the LDP protocol. They are called peak, committed, and excess-data rates – very similar to terms used for ATM networks. The frame format is shown in Figure 10.



Figure 10: CR-LDP Frame Format

The call set-up procedure for CR-LPD is a very simple two-step process: a request and a map, as shown in Figure 11.  The reason for the simple set-up is that CR-LPD is a hard-state protocol – meaning that the call, link, or path, once established, will not be broken down until it is requested that it be done.




Figure 11: CR-LDP Call Set Up

The major advantage of a hard-state protocol is that it should be more scaleable, because there is less “chatter” needed in order to keep the link active.


Comparing CR-LDP to RSVP-TE

The technical comparisons of these two protocols are listed in Figure 12.  We see that CR-LDP uses the LDP protocol as its carrier, where RSVP-TE uses the RSVP protocol.  RSVP is typically paired with IntServ’s detection of QoS, while the CR-LDP protocol uses ATM’s traffic-engineering terms to map QoS.


ComparisonCR-LDPRSVP-TE
VendorsNortelCisco, Juniper, Foundry
StateHard StateSoft State
QoS TypeATMIntServ
Recovery TimeA little slowerFaster
Chat OverheadLowHigh
Transported onLDP over TCPRSVP on IP
Path ModificationsMake before breakMake before break

Figure 12:  CR-LDP vs. RSVP-TE
In the industry today, we find that while Cisco and Juniper favor the RSVP-TE model and Nortel favors the CR-LDP model, both signaling protocols are supported by most vendors.

The jury is still very much as out as to the scalability, recovery, and interoperability between the signaling protocols.  However, it appears from the sidelines that the RSVP-TE protocol may be in the lead. This is not because it is less “chatty” or more robust of the two, but is due more to the fact that RSVP was an established protocol, with most of its bugs removed, prior to the inception of MPLS.  Both protocols remain the topics of study by major universities and vendors.  In the months to come, we will see test results and market domination affect these protocols.  Stay tuned…

Special thanks to:

I would like to thank Ben Gallaher, Susan Gallaher, and Amy Quinn for their assistance, reviewing, and editing.

A special thank you to all those who assisted me with information and research on the MPLSRC-OP mail list, especially Senthil Kumar Ayyasamy (mplsgeek@yahoo.com) and Javed A Syed (Jjsyed@aol.com)

Rick Gallaher, CISSP, is owner of Dragonfly Associates LLC http://dragonfly-associates.com and author of  Rick Gallaher's MPLS Training Guide