Showing posts with label Satellite. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Satellite. Show all posts

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

SpaceX selected to launch Intelsat 40e in 2022

Intelsat named SpaceX as its launch partner for Intelsat 40e (IS-40e), which is an advanced geostationary satellite that will provide Intelsat’s government and enterprise customers across North and Central America with high-throughput, “coast-to-coast” services. Intelsat announced in February that Maxar Technologies will manufacture Intelsat 40e.

The launch is planned for 2022 on SpaceX’s American-built Falcon 9 launch vehicle.

“We look forward to working with SpaceX to launch Intelsat 40e in 2022,” said Intelsat Chief Services Officer Mike DeMarco. “IS-40e will join the Intelsat Epic high-throughput satellite fleet and integrated IntelsatOne ground network to provide our customers with the managed hybrid-connectivity they need in today’s ever-changing world.”
d communications strategies.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

SES and Telesat support FCC’s C-band Order

SES and Telesat, as founding members of the C-Band Alliance, applauded the FCC's final C-band Report and Order.

"We congratulate the Commission on striking the right balance to ensure accelerated access to the spectrum with appropriate incentives, providing an effective transition framework, and adequately protecting critical satellite services for customers and earth station operators."

FCC approves C-Band spectrum rules

The Federal Communications Commission voted to approve new rules to accelerate the auction and transfer of a wide swath of 3.5 GHz spectrum from the satellite industry for new uses, including 5G.

The 280 megahertz of mid-band spectrum will be made available via a public auction.

Within the 3.7-4.2 GHz band, the FCC has is allocating the 3.7-4.0 GHz portion of the band for mobile use and 280 megahertz (3.7-3.98 GHz band) will be auctioned by the FCC for wireless services in the contiguous United States.  Another 20 megahertz (3.98-4.0 GHz) will serve as a guard band while existing satellite operations will be repacked into the upper 200 megahertz of the band (4.0-4.2 GHz).

Satellite operators will be able to receive accelerated relocation payments of $9.7 billion if they meet accelerated clearing milestones.

FCC expects to conduct an auction beginning on December 8, 2020.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

FCC approves C-Band spectrum rules

The Federal Communications Commission voted to approve new rules to accelerate the auction and transfer of a wide swath of 3.5 GHz spectrum from the satellite industry for new uses, including 5G.

The 280 megahertz of mid-band spectrum will be made available via a public auction.

Within the 3.7-4.2 GHz band, the FCC has is allocating the 3.7-4.0 GHz portion of the band for mobile use and 280 megahertz (3.7-3.98 GHz band) will be auctioned by the FCC for wireless services in the contiguous United States.  Another 20 megahertz (3.98-4.0 GHz) will serve as a guard band while existing satellite operations will be repacked into the upper 200 megahertz of the band (4.0-4.2 GHz).

Satellite operators will be able to receive accelerated relocation payments of $9.7 billion if they meet accelerated clearing milestones. 

FCC expects to conduct an auction beginning on December 8, 2020.

In a statement, FCC Chairman Ajit Pai writes: "With respect to this principle of revenue for the federal government, it’s important to make a couple of points about accelerated relocation payments.  First, they will be made by wireless carriers, not the FCC and not the American taxpayer.  And second, to the extent they impact the proceeds of the auction at all, they are likely to increase those proceeds.  That’s because without a strong incentive for satellite operators to cooperate, it will take years longer to clear this spectrum, dramatically reducing the value of this spectrum opportunity to wireless bidders.  It’s like repainting your house before you sell it; yes, there are costs to doing that, but the costs are more than offset by the higher sales price.  And our conservative approach here means the costs of accelerated relocation are easily outweighed by the benefits to the Treasury (not to mention the public at large)..."

"But as to its timing, there are some who argue that we should wait—indefinitely.  They complain that we are refusing to sit on our hands and wait for Congress to legislate.  It’s at once amusing and astounding that some making this criticism are the very same people who have previously complained that the agency isn’t moving quickly enough on mid-band spectrum.  Indeed, by now, it’s become a tired refrain:  Demand action on mid-band spectrum, but vote against putting 2.5 GHz spectrum to work for American consumers.  Demand action on mid-band spectrum, but vote against making the 3.5 GHz band a testbed for 5G.  Demand action on mid-band spectrum, but vote against letting New T-Mobile put underused spectrum to work in rural America.  Demand action on mid-band spectrum, but vote against every single one of the infrastructure reforms needed to enable that spectrum to be used for 5G..." 

So let me be clear regarding this tepid call to change course and sit still.  For those waiting with bated breath for that favorite Washington catchphrase “the U-turn,” I have only one thing to say:  You turn if you want to.  This Chairman’s not for turning.  The goal of leading the world in 5G is too urgent, the need to close the digital divide too pressing for us to put off action indefinitely.  The time to act is now.  And we are acting."


Monday, February 17, 2020

SpaceX deploys 60 more Starlink satellites, booster misses landing

SpaceX successfully launched another 60 Starlink satellites, bringing in orbit to 240.


The launch used a Falcon 9 first stage that had previously flown the CRS-17 mission in May 2019, the CRS-18 mission in July 2019, and the JCSAT-18/Kacific1 mission in December 2019.

However, this time the Falcon 9 booster missed the drone ship in the Atlantic Ocean.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Astranis raises $90 million for its micro-GEO satellite ambitions

Astranis Space Technologies Corp., a start-up based in San Francisco, raised $90 million in new debt and equity funding for its micro-geostationary satellite plans.

Astranis plans to manufacture and operate small geostationary satellites. Its first mission is to bring widespread broadband internet access to the people of Alaska, where 39% of the population still has unreliable internet access.

The Astranis satellites are expected to weigh approximately 350kg and will leverage software-defined radio capabilities.

https://www.astranis.com/

Thursday, February 6, 2020

FCC Chairman proposes accelerated timeline for opening C-band

FCC Chairman Ajit Pai circulated draft rules with his fellow Commissioners that would reform the use of the C-band and make a large amount of spectrum available for 5G.

The C-band is a 500 megahertz segment of spectrum from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz, which is now mostly used by fixed satellite companies to beam content to video and audio broadcasters, cable systems, and other content distributors.

Under the proposed rules, the lower 280 megahertz of the C-band would be available for flexible use, including 5G, through a public auction.  Existing satellite operations would be repacked into the upper 200 megahertz of the band with relocation costs covered by the winning bidders of the auctioned spectrum.

Chairman Pai argues that his proposal would quickly free up a significant amount of spectrum for next-generation wireless services, and it would generate significant revenue for the U.S. Treasury. The plans calls for an accelerated timeline, with the auction occurring in December 2020. 5G deployments could happen in the lower 100 megahertz of the C-band in 46 of the nation’s top 50 Partial Economic Areas by September 2021 and in the remaining spectrum by September 2023.

https://www.fcc.gov/document/summary-chairman-pais-c-band-proposal

Monday, February 3, 2020

Maxar selected for Intelsat 40 geostationary satellite

Maxar Technologies has been selected to manufacture Intelsat 40e, a next-generation geostationary communications satellite scheduled to launch in 2022.

Intelsat 40e will be based on Maxar’s 1300-class satellite platform and Intelsat Epic. It will deliver high-throughput, “coast-to-coast” coverage for North America. It will also integrate NASA’s Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) payload.

“When it’s launched, Intelsat 40e will be the newest addition to our next-generation Intelsat Epic platform, which is already providing our global customers with flexible, high-performance connectivity they can count on today – and in the future,” said Intelsat CEO Stephen Spengler. “Intelsat continuously invests in innovative new satellite and hybrid technologies that make it easy and affordable for our customers to connect people, devices and networks, even in the most remote locations. We look forward to partnering with Maxar on this next build.”

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Skylo raises $103M for IoT over existing geostationary satellites

Skylo, a start-up based in San Mateo, California, emerged from stealth to unveil its plans to create "the world’s most affordable and ubiquitous network that connects any machine or sensor.

Skylo will leverage the cellular Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) protocol via satellite, making it possible to instantly connect billions of sensors on objects and machines in remote areas. Skylo’s new satellite connectivity will use existing geostationary satellites without the need to add new infrastructure in space. The company says it has proven its end-to-end technology and completed successful commercial field trials with major enterprise and government customers. The company’s customers already include enterprise and government entities in a range of industries including automotive, railways, agriculture and maritime.

Skylo recently completed a Series B round of funding which raised $103 million, led by SoftBank Group and joined by all existing investors. The company previously raised $13 million in a Series A round that was co-led by DCM and Innovation Endeavors, and joined by Moore Strategic Ventures. The new

“Skylo envisions a world where connectivity for machines, sensors and devices is as ubiquitous as the sky,” said Skylo co-founder and CEO Parthsarathi “Parth” Trivedi. “This low-cost, global fabric of connectivity for machine data will be transformative for entire industries.”

Skylo’s end-to-end solution encompasses the Skylo Hub, the Skylo Network, the Skylo Data Platform and Skylo API. Mass manufacturing of the Skylo Hub is underway and the Skylo Network is already live with early customers.

  • Skylo Hub — The Skylo Hub is a self-installed, easy-to-use satellite terminal that connects to the Skylo Network. It has a suite of onboard sensors to sense geolocation and acceleration, and operates like a wireless “hot spot” for a variety of external sensors such as vehicle on-board diagnostics (OBD2), temperature sensors, and standard mobile or tablet devices. The Hub uses off-the-shelf components from the cellular world, which drastically reduces the cost of the Hub and increases sensor and device compatibility. Skylo’s digitally-steered antenna technology makes the device so compact that the Hub itself is 8” x 8”, and the antenna can even be OEM-installed onto most vehicles, utilities infrastructure, and other industrial equipment. The Skylo Hub has a built-in battery, or can connect directly to external power sources, including solar.
  • Skylo Network — Skylo has also developed a proprietary method of efficiently transmitting data; this technology minimizes satellite usage costs, a cost savings that is passed onto Skylo customers.
  • Skylo Data Platform and Skylo API — The Skylo Data Platform and API helps customers to manage their Skylo Hubs remotely and visualize, analyze and act on the data that is generated, sent, and received via connected devices.

Skylo was founded in 2017 by CEO Parth Trivedi, Chief Technology Officer Dr. Andrew Nuttall and Chief Hub Architect Dr. Andrew Kalman. The company’s current Board of Directors includes Board Chairman former U.S. Ambassador Terry Kramer, David Chao of DCM, Scott Brady of Innovation Endeavors, Harpinder “Harpi” Singh of Innovation Endeavors, and Skylo CEO Trivedi. Following the receipt of required regulatory approvals, SoftBank Group will also have a representative on the Board of Directors, who will be Yoshi Segawa. Skylo has offices in San Mateo, Calif., Bangalore, India, and Tel Aviv, Israel, and is growing the team globally to support its fast-growing customer base.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Ultra-fast Optical Mesh for Terrestrial, Airborne and Space Applications

BridgeComm is working with Boeing HorizonX on optical wireless communications (OWC) for one-to-many connectivity at 10-100+ Gbps. The two companies are collaboratively on OWC that provides bi-directional, ultra-high-speed mesh connectivity for terrestrial, airborne and space systems.

“Boeing has been a great partner for BridgeComm, beginning with Boeing HorizonX Ventures’ investment in 2018 to a broader strategic relationship,” says BridgeComm CEO Barry A. Matsumori. “We’re excited to expand our partnership by pioneering OTM technology for terrestrial, airborne and space systems.”

“The One-to-Many technology that Boeing and BridgeComm are developing is a game changer for businesses and other organizations that need the ultra-fast, ultra-reliable connectivity that will complement traditional radio frequency systems,” says Dr. Bruce Chesley, senior director of Strategy for Boeing’s Space and Launch business. “OTM will revolutionize the way these organizations communicate, and in the process will create a communications system designed for long term growth.”

http://www.bridgecomminc.com


Monday, December 16, 2019

Google Cloud announces security partnerships

Google Cloud Platform announced more than a dozen new solutions with security partners, including:

  • GCP is working with McAfee, Palo Alto Networks, and Qualys to help customers manage the deployment of agent-based endpoint security and vulnerability management solutions automatically and at scale.
  • Palo Alto Networks is expanding its usage of services on Google Cloud to jointly develop new solutions for Anthos and threat detection.
  • McAfee will integrate its MVISION Cloud solution for data security, threat prevention, governance, and compliance capabilities for container workloads with Google Cloud, as well as its endpoint security solution for Linux and Windows-based workloads.
  • Citrix Workspace is now available on Google Cloud. This includes integration with G Suite that provides a single sign-on experience, multi-factor authentication, enhanced security policies for G Suite, web filtering policies for G Suite, and end-to-end visibility and analytics. Also, users will be able to seamlessly authenticate using G Suite credentials early next year to provide simple, secure access to the apps and information they need to do their jobs anywhere, on any device.
  • Exabeam, a leading SIEM vendor, will expand its SaaS Cloud security management platform on Google Cloud, helping customers bring the scale and speed of the cloud to their existing, trusted SIEM platform.
  • ForgeRock will deliver its Digital Identity Platform on Google Cloud. ForgeRock’s platform helps customers build and maintain cloud-ready architecture to automate multi-cloud deployments. ForgeRock joins Google Cloud as a Premier Partner in the identity space and has named Google Cloud as its primary cloud provider for its cloud-native suite of identity products.
  • Fortinet will provide a new reference architecture for customers to connect facilities to Google Cloud with secure SD-WAN solutions, to make its FortiWeb Cloud WAF-as-a-Service available on Google Cloud, and to integrate its FortiCWP service with Google Cloud Security Command Center.
  • Semperis and STEALTHbits are working with GCP to enable customers to manage, audit, and protect their Microsoft Active Directory-dependent apps and workloads running on Google Cloud from service outages, data breaches, and cyberattacks.
  • Tanium will integrate its endpoint security telemetry and Chronicle’s Backstory platform with GCP to provide full visibility into endpoint events across an enterprise.

In addition, Google Cloud Platform is expanding its work with leading systems integrators and managed services providers, including: Deloitte, IBM Security, Wipro, Arctic Wolf, Comm-IT, Cyderes, and Optiv.

https://cloud.google.com/blog/products/identity-security/making-your-cloud-more-secure-through-google-cloud-partners

SpaceX launches JCSAT-18 and Kacific1 satellites

SpaceX successfully completed its JCSAT-18/Kacific1 satellite launch mission from Cape Canaveral.

The JCSAT-18/Kacific1 payload was equipped with two unique payloads.

The JCSAT-18 satellite was built by Boeing for SKY Perfect JSAT, one of the largest providers of multichannel pay TV broadcast services in Japan, which operates the largest satellite communications business in Asia. The JCSAT-18 satellite will provide Ku-band coverage and improve mobile and broadband services for SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation customers in the Asia-Pacific region,  including the far eastern part of Russia. Boeing has built 13 satellites, including two high-throughput satellites, for SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation and its predecessors since the 1980s.

Kacific1 is a next-generation geostationary satellite operating in the Ka-band frequency spectrum. Its 56 high-throughput spot beams will place capacity over selected regions in South East Asia and the Pacific Islands. Deployed to a geostationary orbital position above Asia Pacific, Kacific1 will transmit to state-of-the-art gateways, designed and built by Kratos.

Falcon 9’s first stage was successfully recovered on the “Of Course I Still Love You” droneship stationed in the Atlantic Ocean.

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

NTT develops Direct Spectrum Division Transmission for satellites

NTT has developed a technique called Direct Spectrum Division Transmission (DSDT) that divides the spectrum of the satellite communications signals into multiple sub-spectra, then makes communications after allocating them to the unused frequency slots of the operating band of the transponder in space, and finally recombines the divided sub-spectra into a single carrier signal.

NTT said it has verified this technique in satellite experiments.

The idea is to attach a “DSDT adapter” to an existing satellite modem. This divides and recombines the spectrum of the signal so that unused frequency resources scattered throughout the operating band of the transponder can be used without affecting existing signals of other users that share the same transponder. In addition, this technique enhances communication security by dividing the signal into multiple sub-spectra in the transmitter and combining the multiple sub-spectra back into the original signal in the receiver.



https://www.ntt.co.jp/news2019/1912e/191211a.html

Monday, November 4, 2019

Nokia and Innventure target satellite innovations

Nokia announced a partnership with Innventure, which commercializes innovative technologies, to accelerate commercialization of disruptive Nokia Bell Labs satellite communications technology and intellectual property in areas beyond Nokia core businesses.

The collaboration will focus initially on Adaptive Bandwidth Management (ABM) technology, which improves bandwidth utilization, security and resilience of satellite systems. The technology and inventions originate from Nokia Bell Labs.

Jenni Lukander, President of Nokia Technologies, said: “Nokia continues to explore new ways to help others benefit from Nokia innovations, while creating value from our industry leading portfolio of technologies and innovation. Innventure’s approach has strong potential to further develop selected Nokia innovations on a commercial level.”

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Gogo buys satellite capacity deal with Eutelsat

Gogo, which provides inflight Internet connectivity for aircraft, and Eutelsat Communications announced a new satellite capacity agreement for high-speed inflight connectivity services.

As part of the new multi-year agreement, Gogo has leased HTS bandwidth on EUTELSAT 10B satellite, to be leveraged over Europe and the Middle East. The new satellite is set to launch in 2022.

“We are advancing capacity capabilities given the growing demand for high-speed inflight connectivity services,” said Oakleigh Thorne, president and CEO of Gogo. "Through our partnership with Eutelsat, Gogo 2Ku will continue to enable the best passenger experience for global airlines.”

"We are thrilled about our ongoing relationship with Gogo, a long-standing partner and a leading provider for inflight connectivity,” said Philippe Oliva, Eutelsat’s Chief Commercial Officer. “This agreement highlights the relevance of our newly ordered EUTELSAT 10B for inflight connectivity and we look forward to supporting Gogo as they increase capacity in Europe and the Middle East to provide the best services to their airline partners.

Monday, October 28, 2019

C-Band Alliance proposes to clear 300 MHz of spectrum for 5G

The C-Band Alliance (CBA), which is backed by Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat, and Telesat, announced a commitment to clear 300 MHz of C-band spectrum to support fast 5G wireless deployment throughout the continental U.S.

The CBA proposal, which is detailed in a filing with the FCC, encompasses 300 MHz of spectrum including a 20-MHz guard band to protect existing satellite services from 5G interference.

Further enhancing its plan to clear spectrum quickly, the first tranche—which clears spectrum within 18 months of an FCC order in 46 top metropolitan zones—is now increased to 120 MHz, inclusive of the 20-MHz guard band. The second tranche of the remaining spectrum will be made available within 36 months from a CBA-led auction, providing cleared spectrum throughout the entire continental U.S.

Speaking on behalf of the C-Band Alliance, Intelsat CEO Stephen Spengler said, “Throughout this nearly two-year process, we have sought to work collaboratively as peers, to be responsive to the goals of U.S. policy makers seeking spectrum for 5G, and to work closely with our customers to protect their transmissions and understand their current and future network needs. Over this time, compression technology has continued to commercialize. We are confident that we can deliver a solution that not only maximizes the clearing of mid-band spectrum to enable 5G in the U.S., but also fully funds a spectrally-efficient, next-generation compression infrastructure for programming distribution in the U.S. This solution represents unprecedented coordination among satellite operators, our customers, and the FCC, and we look forward to delivering to the U.S. an accelerated 5G deployment and the innovation and high-technology job growth that the deployment of 5G is expected to generate for the U.S. economy.”

https://c-bandalliance.com/

Monday, September 9, 2019

SES picks SpaceX for MEO constellation launch

SES selected SpaceX to launch its next-generation Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite constellation.

The global O3b mPOWER system comprises an initial constellation of seven high-throughput, low-latency MEO satellites, each capable of generating thousands of electronically-steered beams that can be dynamically adjusted to serve customers in various markets including telecom and cloud, communications-on-the-move and government. O3b mPOWER also will include a variety of intelligent, application-specific Customer Edge Terminals integrated with SES’s terrestrial network and dynamically optimised using the recently announced Adaptive Resource Control (ARC) software system.

“Momentum in the O3b mPOWER ecosystem is accelerating quickly as we continue to build the right partnerships to bring this massively innovative communications system to market,” said Steve Collar, CEO of SES. “Working with SpaceX as our launch provider is fitting because in the last seven years we have already jointly made multiple revolutionary industry advancements that make access to space innovation more cost-efficient and unlock new opportunities in critical markets. We are delighted to have SpaceX as partners for our historic O3b mPOWER launch, and together, we will extend high-performance connectivity to all who have limited access to it today.”

“We are pleased that SES has once again selected Falcon 9 to launch their powerful, groundbreaking communications system,” said Gwynne Shotwell, President and Chief Operating Officer at SpaceX. “SES has been an important partner for SpaceX – fully supporting our efforts to make rocket reusability a reality. We are proud to play a part in SES bringing revolutionary connectivity solutions to the market.”

https://o3bmpower.ses/

Tuesday, August 6, 2019

Arianespace successfully launches Intelsat 39

Arianespace successfully launched Intelsat 39 aboard an Ariane 5 rocket from the Arianespace launch base in Kourou, French Guiana.

Intelsat 39, which was built by Maxar Technologies, is equipped with both C-band and Ku-band transponders to provide video distribution and broadband connectivity services across Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. The satellite will maintain its position using all-electric propulsion. Intelsat 39 will replace Intelsat 902 at the 62ÂșE orbital location.

Wednesday, July 31, 2019

ATLAS Space opens nine new ground stations

ATLAS Space Operations activated nine new ground stations in its network, bringing its total of ground stations to 13. The company is aiming to activate an additional seventeen sites by 2020. The company is activating ground startions at a pace of one per month.

The new ground stations cover a range of polar and equatorial locations, including: Sodankyla, Finland; Cedar, Michigan; Harmon, Guam; Mojave, California; Chitose, Japan; Tahiti, French Polynesia; Longovilo, Chile; Ningi, Australia; and Usingen, Germany. Coming soon in Sept 2019 are Brewster, Washington and Albuquerque, New Mexico.

“The new locations are highly strategic and enhance the geographical dispersion of the ATLAS ground network,” said Sean McDaniel, CEO and Founder of ATLAS. “Due to the locations of the sites we prioritized, our customers can realize near real-time latency when it comes to getting their valuable and time-sensitive data.”

Notably, eight of the new stations are capable of receiving data in S and X-band frequencies.

https://www.atlasground.com

Monday, July 15, 2019

Galileo cites ground infrastructure for ongoing outage

Galileo, the EU's satellite navigation system, cited a technical incident related to its ground infrastructure as a primary cause of an outage that has persisted since Friday, 11 July 2019.

A service recovery time/date has not yet been forecasted.

Galileo is convening an Anomaly Review Board to analyse the exact root cause and to implement recovery actions.

https://www.gsc-europa.eu/news/update-on-the-availability-of-some-galileo-initial-services



Sunday, July 7, 2019

Amazon's Project Kuiper aims for 3,236 LEO satellites

Amazon filed an application with the FCC to launch up to 3,236 low-Earth orbit satellites for delivering advanced broadband services.

Amazon's Project Kuiper proposes up to 3,236 Ka-band satellites in 98 orbital planes with an apogee of 630km. Each satellite would have an estimated life of 7 years. The company says its Kuiper System will deliver satellite broadband communications services to tens of millions of unserved and underserved consumers and businesses in the United States and around the globe. The Kuiper System includes high-performance satellites, terrestrial gateways, internetworking technologies, and a range of customer terminals.

The Kuiper System will be capable of providing continuous coverage to customers within approximately 56˚N and 56˚S latitude serving the continental United States, Hawaii, U.S. territories, and other regions of the world.

Amazon also noted that its proposed Kuiper System would leverage its own secure, high-quality global networking and cloud infrastructure (AWS).

https://licensing.fcc.gov/cgi-bin/ws.exe/prod/ib/forms/attachment_menu.hts?id_app_num=131001&acct=322741&id_form_num=12&filing_key=-434810

SpaceX launches the first 60 Starlink LEO satellites

SpaceX successfully launched the first 60 satellites of its Starlink LEO constellation.

SpaceX has disclosed plans to deploy as many as 12,000 satellites in three, low earth orbit (LEO) shells. Cost estimates for full deployment approach $10 billion.

The launch used a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket with a first stage that had previously been used on the Telstar 18 VANTAGE mission in September 2018 and the Iridium-8 mission in January 2019. Following the launch, the booster successfully landed on the “Of Course I Still Love You” droneship, which was stationed in the Atlantic Ocean.

The Starlink satellites were deployed at an altitude of 440km. Onboard propulsion was then used to boost each satellite to an operational altitude of 550km.

The Starlink satellites feature a flat-panel design with multiple high-throughput antennas and a single solar array. Each Starlink satellite weighs approximately 227kg.

SpaceX also said the Starlink satellites are able to track and maneuver around orbiting space debris using thrusters powered by Krypton.

In March 2018, the FCC authorized SpaceX to construct, deploy, and operate a proposed non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) satellite system comprising 4,425 satellites for the provision of fixed-satellite service (FSS) around the world.

In July 2016, OneWeb was granted approval to build a similar constellation of MEO satellites.

See also