Showing posts with label Germany. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Germany. Show all posts

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Deutsche Telekom expands 100Mbps in rural areas

Deutsche Telekom reported progress in its network modernization especially in development areas as 405,000 additional households across Germany recently become eligible for 100 Mbps service. Upload speeds have also increased from 10 Mbps to 40 Mbps. The speed boast is attained by installing vectoring line cards in its street cabinets.

"We are making great progress on expanding broadband in Germany", said Walter Goldenits, Chief Technology Officer at Telekom Deutschland.

Sunday, June 24, 2018

Telekom densifies its mobile network -- 36K base stations in 2021

Deutsche Telekom announced the recent commissioning of nearly 300 new mobile base stations in Germany. Deutsche Telekom said an 163,000 additional customers can now access its LTE network. Population coverage increased by 0.2 percentage points to the current 94.4 percent.

Deutsche Telekom also announced plans to increase number of mobile base stations in Germany from 27,000 in 2017 to 36,000 in 2021.

“Focusing solely on fixed-network expansion when it comes to the gigabit society is a short-sighted approach,” says Walter Goldenits, Chief Technology Officer at Telekom Deutschland. “With respect to 5G we cannot afford to ease up with mobile communications expansion. We must continue to drive infrastructure expansion forward. Deutsche Telekom is the leader in Germany when it comes to expanding networks. We do not talk. We build.”

http://www.telekom.de/schneller

T-Systems confirms restructuring - 10K jobs impacted

Deutsche Telekom's T-Systems division is undergoing a major restructuring with the aim of saving 600 million euros in three years through cost cuts and a reduction in its workforce.

Around 4,000 jobs are to be relocated and 6,000 cut worldwide. T-Systems currently employs around 37,000 people worldwide, 17,800 of them in Germany. There are four large-scale delivery centers worldwide (in Germany, Slovakia, Hungary and a newly formed center in India).

T-Systems will increase its investments in growth areas, including Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud, SAP, security, digital solutions, toll collection and services for the public sector.

T-Systems CEO Adel Al-Saleh states "Our strategy is in place: We are aligning ourselves to eleven portfolio units, we have initiated four change initiatives and are now implementing the plans," explains Al-Saleh. "This will turn T-Systems into a digital service provider for our customers."

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Deutsche Telekom extends broadband rollout

Deutsche Telekom confirmed plans to lay 60,000 kilometers of optical fiber in 2018. This compares to 40,000 kilometers laid in 2017.

Telekom's full fiber-optic network now measures 455,000 kilometers -- the largest in Europe. It would wrap around the Earth ten times.

Telekom calculates that it costs between 50,000 and 150,000 euros to lay a kilometer of optical fiber cable.

Deutsche Telekom kicked off a fiber-optic build-out in the port area of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg.

The rollout will bring fiber connections to an estimated 1,000 businesses in the area. The effort will involve laying more than 80 kilometers of fiber-optical cabling and installing 28 distribution cabinets.

“Among the federal states, Hamburg is already taking on a leading role in the provision with digital infrastructure. Fiber-optic connectivity is no
longer just a vision for our city: it’s a reality. The on-going expansion needs to make quick progress. Business parks and the Port area are particularly important in this effort to ensure that Hamburg remains an ultra-modern, highly future-ready business and industrial location. We welcome the fact that Deutsche Telekom too is driving on with the fiber-optic build-out in Hamburg,” says Frank Horch, the Hanseatic City’s minister for economy, transport and innovation.

Deutsche Telekom also noted that more than 832,000 households across Germany are now eligible for 100 Mbps service thanks to its expanded use of vectoring technology over its copper network.


Thursday, May 10, 2018

DLR and ADVA hit 13.16T in test of free space laser for satellite comm

The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt – DLR), working in conjunction with ADVA, set a new data transmission record of 13.16 Tbps for free-space laser communications.

The trial, which emulated a ground to a geostationary satellite link, succeeded in transmitting 13.16 Tbps of data over a distance of 10.45km – nearly eight times the DLR’s previous record. The setup involved a laser at a ground station in Weilheim, Germany, and a mock satellite more than 10km away on the mountain Hohenpeißenberg.

DLR developed the free-space terminal technology. ADVA supplied its FSP 3000 CloudConnect platform including its QuadFlex line cards. These support high-order coherent modulation schemes and enabled each wavelength to carry 200 Gbps payload data using dual-polarization 16QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) and strong soft-decision forward error correction. Atmospheric turbulence in the terrestrial link was equivalent to that experienced in a worst-case scenario between ground and geostationary satellites.

“This trial is a significant milestone in the evolution of stable, high-speed communication via satellite. It’s showing the industry that multi-Terabits of data can be transported every second via satellites using free-space laser communications,” said Christoph Günther, director, DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation. “One of our core aims is helping to achieve global connectivity and this test is a big part of realizing that goal. Through a lot of close collaboration between the DLR and ADVA teams, we’ve been able to demonstrate that this approach is not only feasible but that it’s ready to be used to transmit the enormous amounts of data needed for tomorrow’s users. Setting this benchmark brings high-speed broadband for everyone a step closer to reality.”

“Together with the DLR team, we’re helping shape the future of connectivity. This trial shows the full potential of free-space laser links to transform communications across the globe. We’re proud that our FSP 3000 CloudConnect is making it possible,” commented Jörg-Peter Elbers, SVP, advanced technology, ADVA. “Throughout the tests, the stability of the connection was vital. Even short interruptions of only milliseconds mean Gigabits of lost data. Thankfully, our FSP 3000 CloudConnect™ is one of the most resilient platforms on the market. This trial is about delivering the transformative power of the internet to communities and countries that need it most. By enabling affordable, reliable broadband via satellite at speeds that make a difference, we really are helping to close the digital divide.”

http://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10081/151_read-27323/year-all/#/gallery/30516

https://www.advaoptical.com/

Thursday, May 3, 2018

Deutsche Telekom begins pilot 5G rollout in Berlin

Deutsche Telekom has activated its first six cells with commercial 5G antennas in the heart of Berlin and thereby achieved the first 5G data connection in a live network in Europe.

The Deutsche Telekom 5G cluster covers an area of up to five kilometers wide in Berlin's Mitte and Schöneberg districts for test operations. The antennas, in three cells located in Leipziger Straße and three in Winterfeldtstraße, are based on the 5G New Radio (5G NR) specs. The antennas are using frequencies in the 3.7 GHz spectrum band under a testing license. The 5G equipment is integrated into the live network infrastructure, meaning it is interacting with Deutsche Telekom's 4G spectrum in Germany.

DT's plan is to install an additional 70 cells by the summer across a total of more than 20 sites.

DT is using commercial 5G equipment from Huawei, as well as software and terminals, based on the 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard for 5G New Radio (in the non-standalone version).

"We're continuing on our strong preparation course for the rollout of 5G in 2020," noted Claudia Nemat, Deutsche Telekom Board member for Technology and Innovation. "Today, right in the heart of Berlin, we're taking the next decisive step – with the successful integration of commercial 5G technology into our network. We want to ensure that 5G is going to deliver on its promise of enhanced mobility, high speed and low latency."

"5G New Radio in Berlin is another major step towards 5G for all”, explained Walter Goldenits, Chief Technology Officer at Telekom Deutschland. "This 5G cluster in Berlin will serve as the basis for our future commercial 5G rollout in Germany. The antennas are providing important test results. At the same time, they are real elements of what will be our future 5G network. We are preparing the ground so that our network will be ready when the first 5G-capable smartphones appear on the market."

Deutsche Telekom said it is working in cooperation with its Berlin-based hub:raum start-up incubator, to launch a 5G Prototyping Program. Another relevant program, focused on low latency, is already successfully underway. Both programs are geared towards innovative application developers seeking to exploit the advantages of Edge Computing and 5G network performance. These developers will have the opportunity to verify their ideas on a live environment in the 5G cluster in Berlin.

Thursday, April 19, 2018

Chaos Computer Club utilized the ADVA FSP 3000 CloudConnect

Chaos Computer Club, which calls itself Europe's largest hacker organization, utilized the ADVA FSP 3000 CloudConnect to provide Europe’s largest conference of digital experts with ultra-fast broadband.

The temporary network, based on German operator GasLINE’s fiber infrastructure, gave around 12,000 participants at the annual Chaos Communication Congress access to high-capacity internet connectivity. Operating at 16QAM modulation, the high-performance link transmitted 200 Gbps and stretched almost 200km between the meeting center in Leipzig and Berlin.

ADVA said its solution successfully transported alien wavelengths and enabled Chaos Computer Club members to conduct workshops and advance development projects for the duration of the four-day event.

“This year’s conference was our biggest ever with unprecedented numbers converging on Leipzig. It was vital that our temporary network could accommodate over 12,000 participants and support the technical demonstrations that have become the hallmark of Chaos Communication Congress. The speed, reliability and unbeatable energy-efficiency of the ADVA FSP 3000 CloudConnect made it the perfect solution to transmit alien wavelengths over GasLINE’s meshed ROADM-based optical network,” said Kay Rechthien, backbone and interconnections, Chaos Computer Club.

Wednesday, March 21, 2018

NTT Com plans 4th data center campus in Frankfurt

NTT Communications' e-shelter business unit has acquired a new development site in Frankfurt, which will be its 4th location in the city.

The “Frankfurt 4 Data Center” campus is located in Hattersheim in the west of the city and will feature 5 DC buildings built out in phases, with the first building of 9.7MW IT load scheduled to open in early 2019. Once fully built out, the site is capable of housing up to 60MW IT load and 24,000 sqm of IT space, supporting an average power density of 2.5 kW/sqm.

e-shelter, which offers both wholesale and retail colocation services, along with hybrid IT enterprise solutions, currently operates across ten locations in the DACH region and a data center area of around 90,000 sqm. Outside of DACH e-shelter is also expanding to new markets with a new data center campus opening in Amsterdam in early 2019 and development sites secured in both Madrid and London.

Thursday, January 25, 2018

Deutsche Telekom rolls fiber to business parks

Deutsche Telekom is kicking off the second phase of a roll-out of fiber-optic lines to business parks across Germany.  The carrier plans to connect 7,600 enterprises through this campaign. The fiber upgrade will enable Internet connections of up to1 Gbps.

“Business parks are at the heart of our fiber-optic build-out strategy. We are thinking nationwide, urban and rural, north, south, east and west. The decisive factor for us is customer demand, and we are pleased to be able to offer our business customers fiber-optic lines in a further 33 communities across the country,” says Hagen Rickmann, Director for Business Customers at Telekom Deutschland.

The German towns and cities whose business parks are being upgraded include: Amberg, Bielefeld, Bochum, Bonn, Braunschweig, Bremen, Cologne, Dippoldiswalde, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Flörsheim, Frankfurt, Frechen, Großbeeren, Hamburg, Hermsdorf, Hildburghausen, Hürth, Kelkheim, Kriftel, Langen, Leipzig, Lindlar, Lübeck, Mannheim, Markkleeberg, Nienburg, Oldenburg, Pinneberg, Planegg, Potsdam, Sandersdorf-Brehna and Seevetal.

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Germany's Unitymedia upgrades with Ciena

Unitymedia, a second largest cable operator in Germany and a subsidiary of Liberty Global, has selected to upgrade its optical backbone. As of September 30, 2017, Unitymedia had 7.2 million customers, of which 6.4 million are TV subscriptions, 3.4 million Internet and 3.2 million telephony subscriptions (RGU).

With this upgrade, Unitymedia is adding flexible grid capabilities and leveraging Ciena’s WaveLogic Ai solution to overcome data center complexities and reduce operational expenses.

Ciena said the higher channel capacities offered with WaveLogic Ai, up to 400Gb/s on a single wavelength, enables Unitymedia to offer new high capacity bandwidth services, deliver up to four times the bandwidth within the same infrastructure and site environment while reducing the cost per bit. Unitymedia will also use a number of services from Ciena’s Specialist Services Portfolio, such as installation, operation, and testing.

Thursday, January 4, 2018

Swarm64 raises $12.5M for FPGA acceleration for databases

Swarm64, a Norwegian company with operations in Berlin, Germany secured a Series B funding round of US$12.5 million for its scalable data accelerator (SDA) for relational databases.

Swarm64 leverages an FPGA-based accelerator and real-time database software to perform analytics for high velocity and big data applications in PostgreSQL, MariaDB, and MySQL .


The funding round was led by Intel Capital and Investinor. Also participating in the round were Alliance Venture and Target Partners.

"We are very glad to welcome Intel Capital as a new investor. The cooperation with Intel will help us serve a global market with the most advanced technology.” says Karsten Rönner, CEO of Swarm64. “Many industries face an explosion in their data processing needs, be it from growing numbers of connected ‘things’, expanding business models that include data analytics or staying competitive in markets with ever higher data processing needs. The Swarm64SDA enables anyone with basic skills in relational databases to gain deep new business insights in less time.”

Saturday, December 9, 2017

DE-CIX hits a peak load of 6 Tbps for first time

On December 6th, the DE-CIX Internet Exchange in Frankfurt, Germany hit exceeded the 6 Tbps threshold of peak load for the first time.

The DE-CIX Internet exchange in Frankfurt boasts over 700 networks connections. Access is available in 20+ data centers in the metro area. Exchange traffic flows over the DE-CIX Apollon platform.

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Deutsche Telekom and Fraunhofer IML open NB-IoT Lab

Deutsche Telekom and the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics IML have opened an IoT lab in Dortmund, Germany.

The Telekom Open IoT Lab will host up to six scientists from Fraunhofer IML and three IoT experts from Deutsche Telekom to develop and test industrial Internet of Things (IoT) solutions and get them market ready. The research will concentrate on solutions based on NB-IoT technology.

Deutsche Telekom is now offering NB-IoT commercially throughout all of Germany.

Monday, October 16, 2017

DT has four 5G NR antennas running in Berlin

Deutsche Telekom has now activated four antennas in Berlin running pre-standard 5G NR technology.

The network is achieving throughput of more than 2 Gbps to a single customer device, as well as a latency of three milliseconds on commercial sites in Berlin's Schöneberg district. The network is running in the 3.7 gigahertz band. Huawei is the lead supplier.

"5G New Radio in Berlin is the first major step towards 5G for everybody," said Deutsche Telekom CTO Bruno Jacobfeuerborn. "As soon as the standard is defined and is available, we will proceed in 2018 to lay the foundation for large-scale build-out. This is how we are driving the technology development in Europe and demonstrate our innovation power.”

Friday, September 1, 2017

DT activates its first pre-standard 5G connection in Berlin

Deutsche Telekom activated its first, pre-standard 5G connection over its commercial network in central Berlin using 3.7 GHz spectrum.

The 5G connection is operating a over 2 Gbps with a low latency of three milliseconds.

Huawei supplied the user equipment based on 3GPP specifications for 5G New Radio (NR), the deployment on commercial sites is the first in Europe and marks an important advancement in the global development of 5G.  

DT said the implementation in a live real-world setting in central Berlin using Huawei equipment and software is based on pre-standard 5G that closely tracks the 3GPP global standard for so-called ‘Non-Standalone New Radio’. With the Non-Standalone 5G NR mode for the enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) use-case, it is meant that the connection is anchored in LTE while 5G NR carriers are used to boost data-rates and reduce latency. Therefore, 5G new radio will be deployed with the evolution of 4G LTE as the baseline for wide-area broadband coverage. The specifications enabling that system will be complete by December 2017 as part of the first drop of 3GPP Release 15.

“5G new radio will be critical for meeting our customers’ ever-increasing connectivity requirements that are steadily growing with more and more network connections,” said Claudia Nemat, Deutsche Telekom Board member for Technology and Innovation. “Our achievement demonstrates the feasibility of our plans to deliver a superior, new customer experience.”

“As long time partners, both Deutsche Telekom Group and Huawei have joined hands to successfully test 5G NR equipments in field environments based on latest 3GPP R15 standards. These achievements highlight the capabilities of the 5G NR equipment to meet operators’ requirements for addressing new business opportunities for end users. Huawei is confident that the partnership with Deutsche Telekom can fully prepare the commercial launch of 5G NR services in Europe by 2020 thanks to 3GPP standardization efforts,” said Huimin Zhu, Vice President 5G Huawei.

https://www.telekom.com/en/media/media-information/archive/dt-and-huawei-go-live-with-europes-first-5g-connection-501660

Thursday, August 31, 2017

NTTCom opens data center in Bonn, Germany

NTT Communications, acting through its European subsidiary e-shelter, a  inaugurated a new data center in Bonn, Germany.

The two-story Rhein-Ruhr 1 offers 2,700 square meters (sqm) of server space, equivalent to 1,100 racks. The facility conforms delivers data-center services based on more than 300 globally unified standards that NTT Com’s Nexcenter facilities have implemented for equipment and operations.

In Europe, NTT Com delivers data center services in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland and the UK (see Appendix 1). NTT Com expands its data center business to the Rhein-Ruhr region, one of the most expected data-center markets in Germany mainly serving the customers from the public sector.

“We provide the infrastructure that Germany needs for the future”, says Rupprecht Rittweger, e-shelter CEO and founder. “At first sight, you may perceive just a building fulfilling its purpose as a data center. But the conceptual design of our data centers goes much further. Data centers will be even more important in the future, they are a foundation for digital sovereignty in our country.

http://www.ntt-global.com

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Germany's 1&1 Versatel selects Coriant mTera for national backbone

Coriant announced that 1&1 Versatel, a major provider of data, Internet and voice services in Germany, has deployed the Coriant mTera universal switching and transport solution to increase the capacity and enhance the bandwidth management capabilities of its nationwide high-speed optical backbone network.

The Coriant solution, which includes advanced OTN switching and end-to-end network management functionality, is designed to enable 1&1 Versatel to cost-effectively meet increasing customer demand for network bandwidth while enhancing service delivery across the country.

The 1&1 Versatel high-capacity national fibre backbone network extends over more than 42,000 km, the second largest network in Germany, and supports a range of business and residential communications services via support for high-speed data transfer at speeds of up to 100 Gbit/s, upgradeable to 200 Gbit/s.

To maximise utilisation of its fibre assets and enhance the resiliency, scalability and flexibility of its broadband services, 1&1 Versatel has deployed Coriant's mTera platform in major backbone sites across Germany, and is currently extending the deployment to its regional fibre networks.

Designed to enable network modernisation, the Coriant mTera solution will enable 1&1 Versatel to aggregate, groom and transport diverse traffic types, while supporting the cost-effective migration of legacy traffic, including SDH. mTera is a flexible multi-service transport solution that offers support for software-defined universal switching, including OTN, Carrier Ethernet, MPLS-TP and SONET/SDH in a single system architecture.

The mTera platform supports 7 Tbit/s of universal switching capacity per shelf, with up to 12 Tbit/s of total switching capacity per rack.

In addition, provisioning and management of service capacity in 1&1 Versatel's backbone will be provided by the Coriant Transport Network Management System (TNMS), which helps to reduce operating expenses and improve service resiliency leveraging end-to-end network control, automated provisioning features and advanced planning capabilities.

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Exaring deploys Juniper for delivery of IPTV

Juniper Networks announced that Exaring, a digital service provider based in Germany, has deployed its solutions to create a scalable and fully-automated infrastructure to support delivery of next generation, IP-based TV services.

Exaring's platform offers German households broadcast TV services in the cloud via a smart device. The company operates an extensive fibre infrastructure that is used exclusively for the transmission of IP entertainment services, combining high-definition TV content with intuitive apps and the flexibility of the web. Exaring has also created its own TV platform, waipu.tv.

The flexible and automated network architecture created by Juniper's technology is designed to enable Exaring to integrate and deploy new services faster and reduce total cost of ownership (TCO), as well as meet increasing demand for its IP TV playout platform. The automated solution also allows the company to monitor and dynamically adjust network performance based on data analysis.

For the deployment, Juniper supplied its QFX Series switching technology to support the automated delivery of TV services, including HD and 4K (ultra HD) video, to end-users utilising customers' existing Internet connections and without the need for additional installations.

Exaring's services run in a cloud environment created by the QFX switches, high capacity, high-density switching platforms featuring an open architecture that are designed to serve as universal building blocks for automated, programmable fabric architectures.

Specifically Exaring has deployed the Juniper QFX10000 at its data centre edge, which offers IPv4 and IPv6 peering functionality and enables low latency transport, together with Juniper's ASIC functionality, including Virtual output Queueing (VoQ) technology. The new network infrastructure runs on the Junos OS operating system, allowing centralised management to help streamline and simplify network operations, and integration into Exaring's existing orchestration and automation infrastructure.




  • * Earlier this year, ADVA Optical Networking announced that Exaring had deployed its technology to cerate what was claimed to be Germany's first integrated platform for the delivery of IP entertainment services. Based on the ADVA FSP 3000 solution, Exaring's upgraded national 100 Gbit/s backbone was designed to transmit on-demand TV and gaming services to approximately 23 million households across the country.

Friday, June 2, 2017

Germany's NetCologne and ZTE demo G.fast@212 MHz

ZTE and NetCologne, a regional network operator in the great Cologne-Bonn area of Germany and a subsidiary of utility company GEW Köln, which in March announced with ZTE the launch of the pilot phase of a G.fast roll-out, have jointly announced the G.fast@212 MHz profile ultra-broadband solution at the ANGACOM broadband exhibition in Cologne.

In what the companies claim is the first demonstration of G.fast@212 MHz, the technology is being tested over a live network. As part of the demonstration ZTE and NetCologne showcased the access rate profile of G.fast@212 MHz reaching more than 1.8 Gbit/s, with a download rate 1.6 Gbit/s and upload rate of around 200 Mbit/s. ZTE's G.fast solution is designed to enable NetCologne's fibre-to-the-building (FttB) access network to support gigabit bandwidth.
NetCologne stated that it is committed to providing the city of Cologne and surrounding regions with reliable, advanced telecom services, and has cited a target of reaching 260,000 homes. The company operates four data centres and offers a service portfolio that includes voice and data services and distribution of TV services for both residential and business users, as well as business ICT solutions.



  • NetCologne and ZTE signed the agreement defining their strategic partnership in February of this year. Under the terms of the agreement, ZTE will provide NetCologne with advanced network equipment including G.fast distribution point units (DPUs) and terminals.
  • ZTE's multi-port G.fast DPU supports G.fast@212 MHz and flexible uplink selection among PON/point-to-point/DSL (PON/P2P/DSL) technologies. The solution also features multiple power supply options, allowing it to self-adapt for a range of deployment scenarios.
  • Through the agreement, ZTE will help NetCologne to upgrade its existing VDSL network to a G.fast network. This solution will enable NetCologne to cost-effectively provide access at rates approaching 2 Gbit/s while utilising the existing copper infrastructure, without the need for fibre reconstruction in the residential network.

Monday, May 22, 2017

NTT Com expands presence in Europe with new Munich 2 data centre

NTT Communications (NTT Com) announced the opening of its Germany Munich 2 data centre (Munich 2) located in Unterschleißheim, a suburb of Munich 16 km from the city centre, with the facility managed by e-shelter, a NTT Com company and data centre services provider in Europe.

The two-story Munich 2 data centre initially offers 2,800 sq metres of server space, equivalent to 1,100 racks, with plans to expand the facility to 5,600 sq metres. The facility is operating under NTT Com's Nexcenter brand, which encompasses more than 140 sites worldwide.

NTT Com noted that Munich 2, the latest facility launched as part of e-shelter's growth strategy, follows the mid-April launch of the e-shelter innovation lab in Frankfurt, Germany. Through this expansion, e-shelter expects to open additional data centres in Europe in 2017.

The Munich 2 facility provides circuits from more than 10 providers utilising diverse paths, while all circuits are duplicated in the meet-me-room for telecom provider interconnection, the server room and the network racks. Customers have access to up to 10 Gbit/s Internet circuits and multiple carrier-neutral networks. Customers can also build ICT environments combining NTT Com data centres and cloud services worldwide.

NTT Com company e-shelter is a major data centre operator in Europe, with a presence in key cities of the DACH-region. e-shelter customers inlcude financial services companies, telecoms operators, IT service and outsourcing providers and cloud service providers. In Germany, Arkadin, Dimension Data, itelligence, NTT DATA and NTT Security are also part of the NTT Group. In the Europe region, NTT Com offers data centre services in Austria, France, Spain, Switzerland and the UK, as well as Germany.


See also