Sunday, February 1, 2015

Blueprint: The Structural and Economic Benefits of Passive Optical LANs

by Stephen Porach, PE, RCDD, OCC, Manager of Business Development – Enterprise Solutions

With the rise of fiber to the home (FTTH) technology, the commercial sector is quickly jumping on the bandwagon. Optical LANs are rapidly replacing the traditional commercial network infrastructure with fewer components, decreased installation costs, operational efficiencies and a system that’s ready for future upgrades.

Derived from fiber to the home technology, Optical LANs, also called passive optical networks (PON) or passive optical LANs (POL), have been around for 20 to 25 years, but it wasn’t until recently that the technology had been scaled to bring cost effective, green connectivity to the commercial sector by replacing or integrating with existing network architecture.

Traditional network architecture in an Ethernet LAN typically consists of multiple levels of switch aggregation. Services, such as voice, data and video, are routed through a multi-link network that uses an enormous amount of copper cabling to connect users to local switches in IDF closets and/or telecommunication rooms throughout a building.  In multi-level buildings and large campuses, this can create a congested hierarchy of switches and cabling that all require space, energy and cooling.

POL eliminates the complexity of this architecture and offers significant energy and labor savings.

Introducing Passive Optical LAN

Contrary to traditional structured cabling, POL uses a slightly different architecture than networks requiring telecom rooms filled with switches. POL flattens the Local Area Network, by replacing switches for passive optical splitters, thereby eliminating the many challenges associated with conventional networks.

Upgrading to a POL solution is a seamless transition because it does not require changing, upgrading or supplementing user equipment such as computers, network printers or any other IP device.  Nor does it require replacement of the traditional core (WAN) switch, which is the company’s access point to the internet or cloud.  POLs simply take the place of all the intermediate switches and horizontal copper cabling.

An Optical Line Terminal (OLT) is connected to the core switch and serves as the center of the POL.  From the OLT, single-mode fiber is run to an optical splitter.  The optical splitter is used in lieu of the access switch traditionally located in the telecommunications room.  The optical splitter is a passive device that splits the downstream signals to all connected devices and it combines them for data flowing upstream.  By eliminating the aggregation and access switches, you eliminate the power, cooling and space required for that telecommunications room.

The signal is then distributed to Optical Network Terminals (ONTs), which may look similar to cable modems in a home, that offer standard Ethernet connectivity to end-users. At this point the copper Ethernet connection to the end user device can support Power over Ethernet (PoE), and can do so up to the standard 100-meter channel.  These ONTs can be located at the desktop, under it, or in a variety of different locations depending on the device or devices it is serving.

Passive Optical LANs require only a single strand of fiber to convey the signal in both directions by utilizing wave division multiplexing (WDM).  WDM utilizes multiple wavelengths of light on the same strand of fiber, allowing the downstream and upstream signals to co-exist on that single fiber strand.  This is somewhat different from how signals are transported on a more cumbersome conventional network where two strands are required, one for the downstream signal and one for the upstream signal.

What should you be looking for in a Passive Optical LAN provider

Cost Savings

Passive Optical LANs can provide significant savings to any organization. The savings are two-fold. There is the upfront savings to install the network and support structure, and there is a year-over-year operational savings.

Because of the ease of installation and maintenance, organizations using POLs will experience lower capital and operating expenditures over time compared to traditional cabling.

Additionally, optical splitters in the POL remove the need for switches and the backbone copper cable that runs from switches to end-user ports.

POL capital/operational savings originate from:

  • Optical splitters removing the need for expensive switches, compounded by the reduction in the power and cooling infrastructure required to support those switches.
  • Replacement of expensive copper cable with a less expensive, single-mode fiber cable. Furthermore single-mode fiber will not require replacement during future network upgrades.
  • Eliminating of large bundles of copper cabling reduces the infrastructure required such as cable tray, ladder rack, conduit and firestop systems to support the cable.

Easy Installation  

With the significant reduction in cabling in a POL solution, installers no longer have to pull miles of heavy cable and run that cable to thousands of Ethernet ports. As previously stated, the support infrastructure for those cables is also gone, eliminating multiple steps in installations and saving time for installers.

Additionally, modern optical fiber is lightweight, yet tough enough to allow you to pull and bend the fiber without damage to the operating performance. The bend insensitive optical performance of single-mode fiber allows these cables to be installed even in the tightest of spaces.  Moreover, the cables can be custom manufactured to be used in a variety of industrial and generally harsh environment applications.

Looking for a significantly reduced installation time? Utilize pre-terminated fiber assemblies. Large POLs have significant quantities of fiber terminations.  Pre-terminated assemblies decrease labor costs and significantly reduce installation time.


POL simplifies network moves, adds and changes without having to replace the cabling infrastructure. Single-mode fiber has more bandwidth and greater distance capabilities than any other medium on the market today. Once single-mode fiber is installed, upgrades are accomplished simply by upgrading the electronics (OLTs & ONTs).  This removes the need to replace outdated category cables when providing additional bandwidth to the end user. This fiber infrastructure should support the user longer than any other medium available, giving organizations a real motive to ensure they have a 25-year product assurance warranty issued with their installation.

In addition, many large campus networks have a single-mode fiber infrastructure already installed between buildings. Optical networks can span up to 30 kilometers and take advantage of this previously installed infrastructure.


Not only can organizations save on maintenance and installation, studies have shown POL can cut energy costs by up to 67 percent. Replacing a switch with an optical splitter, reduces power consumption and energy demands.

Flexible and Customized  

Passive Optical LANs can be configured specifically to user requirements, which is why deploying components from a full line manufacturer of POL products provides flexibility not found in conventional networks. POLs are scalable and can be modified, upgraded or enlarged with the user.  If telecommunications rooms are on-site, the infrastructure can mirror cable routing of a traditional LAN.  However, if organizations take full advantage of a POL solution, energy and space wasting telecom rooms are replaced with a zone enclosure located in the ceiling. The zone enclosures house the optical splitters and can be located throughout the user space depending on their unique requirements.

Passive Optical LAN Solutions Encourage Savings and Support Growth

POL’s are intended to support multiple applications, from mobile to desktop computing, as well as voice, IP and RF Video. Additionally, the single-mode infrastructure can be leveraged to support a Distributed Antenna System (DAS).

In general, organizations searching for a networking solution that is less costly, more energy efficient, easier to install, simpler to maintain and more secure than traditional cabling structures, should lose the telecom room and begin enjoying energy and cost savings today with a POL solution.

About the Author

Stephen Porach graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY with a Bachelors of Science in Mechanical Engineering.  He worked for 6 years in the construction industry, and has now been employed in the telecommunications industry for 20 years in positions ranging from sales to engineering to marketing. He is a licensed Professional Engineer (PE) and a BICSI Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD). Porach is currently Manager of Business Development – Enterprise Solutions at Optical Cable Corporation (“OCC®”).

About OCC
Founded in 1983, OCC is headquartered in Roanoke, Virginia with offices, manufacturing and warehouse facilities located in each of Roanoke, Virginia, near Asheville, North Carolina and near Dallas, Texas. OCC’s facilities are ISO 9001:2008 registered, and OCC’s Roanoke and Dallas facilities are MIL-STD-790F certified.

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Friday, January 30, 2015

AT&T Secures Nationwide 10x10 MHz AWS-3 Spectrum for $18.2 Billion

AT&T will pay $18.2 billion as the winning bidder on a near nationwide contiguous 10x10 MHz block of AWS-3 spectrum in the FCC's just completed Auction 97.

The licenses cover 307 million people representing 96 percent of the U.S. population and 96 of the Top 100 U.S. markets. AT&T said this spectrum includes 57 percent of MHz POPs covered by the valuable J-block of AWS-3 spectrum.

“Growth in our customers’ mobile data usage continues to explode, driven by mobile video traffic. This spectrum investment will be critical to AT&T staying ahead of customer demand and facilitate the next generation of mobile video entertainment,” said John Stankey, chief strategy officer-AT&T.

AT&T also stated that this spectrum investment, along with its other pending acquisitions, may cause the company to go above its 1.8x net-debt-to-EBITDA target. The company will use excess cash — after paying its dividend — over the next three years to pay down debt, and expects to return to historical debt ratios.

  • The FCC's Advanced Wireless Services (AWS-3) Auction 97 raised a record $44.899 billion in bids.  A total of 1,611 licenses total were, covering 65 MHz of spectrum in the 1695-1710 MHz, 1755-1780 MHz, and 2155-2180 MHz bands ("AWS-3" bands).

Verizon Spends $10.4 Billion at FCC's Spectrum Auction

Verizon Communications was the winning bidder or 181 licenses in the FCC's AWS-3 spectrum auction.  The company bid  $10.4 billion in total.  The licenses cover 192 million POPs, or 61 percent of the United States.

Dish Network is a Big Spender in Auction

Dish Network, acting through its subsidiaries Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless License Co, was the winning bidder on 702 spectrum licenses in the FCC's recently completed AWS-3 auction.  Dish's bids topped $13.3 billion, however the company qualified for a 25% discount by filing as a small business under FCC rules.

Dish Network currently does not operate any cellular networks.

Full auction results are posted here:

BT Outlines its Ambitions

BT CEO Gavin Patterson today set out the company’s ambition to transform the UK broadband landscape from superfast to ultrafast.

BT outlined plans to deliver much faster broadband for homes and small businesses via a widespread deployment of, enabling speeds of up to 500 Mbps. Trial deployments to two pilot locations (Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Gosforth, Newcastle) are expected this summer to around 4,000 homes. If successful, BT anticipates rollouts starting in 2016/17.

The pilots will build on recent tests at BT’s innovation centre at Adastral Park, Suffolk which have shown that has the potential to deliver significant speed increases from existing and new fibre street cabinets as well as from other points closer to the customer.

“BT is a world leader when it comes to fibre innovation and we are excited about the next stage in our story,” Patterson said today. “We believe is the key to unlocking ultrafast speeds and we are prepared to upgrade large parts of our network should the pilots prove successful. That upgrade will depend however on there continuing to be a stable regulatory environment that supports investment.

“The UK is ahead of its major European neighbours when it comes to broadband and we need to stay ahead as customer demands evolve. will allow us to do that by building on the investment we have made in fibre to date. It will transform the UK broadband landscape from superfast to ultrafast in the quickest possible timeframe.”

  • BT's fiber network currently passes almost 22 million premises – around three quarters of the UK – and is open to all communications providers on an equal basis. 

SolarWinds Acquires Librato for Cloud Monitoring

SolarWinds, which specializes in IT performance management solutions, has acquired Librato, a San Francisco-based cloud monitoring company, for a cash purchase price of $40 million.

Librato currently enables full-stack performance monitoring of infrastructure and applications on public clouds such as AWS and Heroku, or in a company’s own data centers using a rich set of OSS data collection agents and instrumentation libraries for a variety of technologies and languages such as StatsD, collectd, Rails, Ruby, Python, Node.js and Java. Librato also offers the unique ability to monitor and alert on unlimited metrics from hundreds of sources with second precision, correlate and analyze them to produce actionable results.

Solarwinds, which acquire Pingdom for its website monitoring service in 2014, said this latest acquisition will expand its solutions for monitoring and managing cloud-based applications and infrastructure. SolarWinds plans to bring these companies, Pingdom and Librato, under a new brand, SolarWinds Cloud, for providing visibility from the “outside in” (Web Performance Management) and the “inside out” (Cloud Infrastructure Management).

“As we evaluate the growth of the business-critical application, we see three ‘horizons’ of application deployment that require robust performance management – on-premise IT, IT as a Service, and IT in the Cloud,” said Kevin Thompson, president and CEO, SolarWinds. “We expect that the requirement to manage existing on-premise infrastructure will continue, but will now be coupled with the need to manage the performance of infrastructure and applications either fully or partially deployed in private and public clouds. As more and more businesses move aspects of their environments to Cloud-based deployment models, we believe we are the right company, with the right product set, to help manage infrastructure performance.”

NTT Com Connects Phones and Digital Signs with WebSocket and WebRTC

NTT Communications is testing WebSocket and WebRTC protocols to connect smartphones with digital signage.  The idea is to provide a convenient method for people to download things such as sightseeing information or disaster response information directly from a digital sign.

The test will be conducted at Mihama Town Resort American Village (American Village) in Chatancho, Okinawa Prefecture during the month of February.

NTT Com will encourage users share their photos by using smartphones to read a QR code on a digital sign to access the service website. Photos uploaded to the website will be used for the creation of mosaic art, which will turn the photos into small pieces of large mosaics that will be displayed on the digital signage. The mosaics will also be available for downloading to users’ smartphones. The test also will evaluate how traffic conditions affect real-time information uploading and downloading of photos using digital signage, specifically in terms of effectiveness, potential technological problems and system load characteristics.

Thursday, January 29, 2015

FCC Raises $45 Billion in AWS-3 Spectrum Auction

The FCC's Advanced Wireless Services (AWS-3) auction drew to a close, raising a total of $44.899 billion.

A total of 1,611 licenses total were, covering 65 MHz of spectrum in the 1695-1710 MHz, 1755-1780 MHz, and 2155-2180 MHz bands ("AWS-3" bands).

The 1695-1710 MHz band is authorized for low-power mobile transmit (i.e., uplink) operations only. The 1755-1780 MHz frequencies in the paired 1755-1780/2155-2180 MHz band are authorized only for low-power mobile transmit (i.e., uplink) operations; the 2155-2180 MHz frequencies are authorized only for base station and fixed (i.e., downlink) operations. Mobiles and portables in the 1695-1710 MHz and 1755-1780 MHz bands may only operate when under the control of a base station, and AWS-3 equipment is subject to a basic interoperability requirement.

“Today we closed bidding Auction 97 – by far the highest-earning spectrum auction the United States has ever seen.  But it was much more than that.  This auction also marked a new era in spectrum policy, where a collaborative and unprecedented effort resulted in new commercial access to federal spectrum bands.  A bipartisan group of leaders in Congress, federal agencies – especially NTIA and DoD – the White House, industry, and the team at the FCC all came together to help meet the Nation’s demand for wireless broadband," stated FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler.

"If you had conducted a poll of analysts before the start of the AWS-3 auction, the highest prediction given for its yield would not have exceeded $18 billion.  Seventy-seven days and a record setting $44.89 billion later, Auction 97 has shown that demand for this spectrum was phenomenal," said FCC Commissioner Mignon Clyburn.

FCC Updates Broadband Definition to 25 Mbps

The FCC updated its definition for broadband to 25 Mbps down and 3 Mbps up.

The previous benchmark, set in 2010, was 4 Mbps down and 1 Mbps up.

The FCC also released the following stats on broadband adoption:

  • 17 percent of all Americans (55 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps service. 
  • 53 percent of rural Americans (22 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps. 
  • By contrast, only 8 percent of urban Americans lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps broadband.
  • Rural America continues to be underserved at all speeds: 20 percent lack access even to service at 4 Mbps/1 Mbps, down only 1 percent from 2011, and 31 percent lack access to 10 Mbps/1 Mbps, down only 4 percent from 2011.
  • 63 percent of Americans living on Tribal lands (2.5 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps broadband
  • 85 percent living in rural areas of Tribal lands (1.7 million people) lack access.
  • 63 percent of Americans living in U.S. territories (2.6 million people) lack access to 25 Mbps/3 Mbps broadband.
  • 79 percent of those living in rural territorial areas (880,000 people) lack access.
  • Overall, the broadband availability gap closed by only 3 percent last year.
  • Americans living in rural and urban areas adopt broadband at similar rates where 25 Mbps/ 3 Mbps service is available, 28 percent in rural areas and 30 percent in urban areas.
  • Approximately 35 percent of schools lack access to fiber, and thus likely lack access to broadband at the Commission’s shorter term benchmark (adopted in its July 2014 E-rate Modernization Order) of 100 Mbps per 1,000 users, and even fewer have access at the long term goal of 1 Gbps per 1,000 users.

VMware's vCloud Air to Deliver Google Cloud Services

VMware will deliver Google Cloud Platform services via its vCloud Air platform beginning later this year. Existing VMware vCloud Air customers will have access to the new services under their current service contract and existing network interconnect, and simply pay for the Google Cloud Platform services they consume.

The initial set of Google Cloud Platform services that will be available on vCloud Air include:

  • Google Cloud Storage - Google's distributed low-cost object storage service
  • Google BigQuery - A real-time big data analytics service suitable for running ad-hoc business intelligence queries across billions of data points in seconds
  • Google Cloud Datastore - Google's schema-less, document-based NoSQL database service with automatic scale and full transactional integrity
  • Google Cloud DNS - A globally distributed low-latency DNS service

The companies also announced they are exploring extended management support for Google Cloud Platform as part of VMware's vRealize Cloud Management Suite.

"Our collaboration will provide customers with a unique hybrid solution that combines the power and efficiencies of VMware virtualization and the hyperscale of Google Cloud Platform," said Murali Sitaram, managing director, Global Partner Strategy & Alliances, Google. "As a result of this agreement, enterprise customers will be able to combine their VMware cloud environments with the security, scalability, and price performance of Google's public cloud, built on the same infrastructure that allows Google to return billions of search results in milliseconds."

"We are excited to expand our relationship with Google, and offer customers the ability to use Google's rich portfolio of services while running their mission critical applications on the vCloud air platform," said Bill Fathers, executive vice president and general manager, Cloud Services Business Unit, VMware. "Through this agreement, customers will gain the benefit of both vCloud Air and Google Cloud Platform in a single hybrid cloud service, supported by VMware, and fully compatible with their existing vSphere-based data center infrastructure."

VeloCloud: Variable Performance for Broadband WAN Connections

Businesses relying on broadband lines (DSL, cable, LTE, Ethernet or fiber) continue to experience variable and insufficient performance one-quarter of the time, according to data compiled by VeloCloud Networks.

Specifically, the VeloCloud Internet Quality Report for enterprise applications performance measured packet loss and jitter/latency during work hours over Internet WAN connections. Data was gathered by continuous monitoring of VeloCloud’s cloud network service. These 2H2014 results of 6 million link statistics cover more than 60 locations and 50 ISPs.

“The survey confirms that unpredictable Internet performance can’t be solved by switching Internet service providers (ISPs), changing the type of service (DSL, cable, LTE, Ethernet or fiber) or throwing any amount of bandwidth at the problem,” said Sanjay Uppal, CEO and co-founder of VeloCloud. “But it also shows that by fundamentally transforming how these inexpensive broadband links are utilized, enterprises can use the Internet as their WAN to augment their existing private lines, at a fraction of the cost.”

Key findings of the VeloCloud Internet Quality Report include:

  • During business hours (defined as 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., local time), Internet links could not deliver enterprise-quality real-time traffic 25% of the time, on average.
  • Poor performance varied by city from as low as 1% to over 50%. This magnitude of variation was found even within an ISP’s service in the same city over time.
  • There was no improvement in performance even as available bandwidth increased to 200Mbps and more.
  • An overlay cloud-delivered SD-WAN service, featuring dynamic multipath optimization, was able to deliver enterprise-quality application performance 99.3% of the time.
  • Unreliable Internet Links Equals Money Lost
  • Enterprises want to optimize both real-time application performance and costs across their WANs. As the network demands of these real-time applications have increased, so has the number of applications delivered from the cloud. These changes are driving enterprises to look to the Internet for a more cost-effective way to connect directly to cloud applications. However, broadband Internet links to date have not been able to deliver the quality needed to run enterprise applications.

The VeloCloud report includes a Quality Score that rates the ability of Internet connections to support application performance. This scoring is consistent with industry standards, such as mean opinion scores (MOS) for VOIP, and calibrated with third-party tools. The real-world data has been anonymized and aggregated to ensure customer privacy.

  • In July 2014, VeloCloud Networks, a start-up based in Mountain View , California, launched its subscription-based, virtualized WAN service for enterprises that aggregates multiple access lines (cable modem, DSL, LTE) into a single secure connection that is defined and controlled in the cloud. The VeloCloud service uses an Intel-based customer premise device at a branch office to communicate with a VeloCloud gateway in the cloud. The service analyzes network performance and application traffic to determine the best path and dynamically steer traffic to corporate data center or cloud services.
    Compared to MPLS VPNs, VeloCloud said its services offers a significant cost savings because it uses available Internet access lines while delivering enterprise-grade reliability and performance. Advanced network services, such as application-aware firewalls, can be virtualized on the CPE or delivered in the network.  VeloCloud will charge a flat fee per month per location served. The subscription service comprises a Cloud Orchestrator, distributed Cloud Services Gateways and a Cloud Services Edge per branch.

Mushroom Adds VoIP Performance Mgt to Broadband Bonding

Mushroom Networks introduced a VoIP Armor performance management tool for its Truffle broadband line bonding appliance.

Mushroom's VoIP Armor shields the VoIP traffic against any type of WAN link performance fluctuations and link failures. The technology relies on two or more Broadband Bonded Internet links to protect the VoIP packets against loss, delay and jitter as well as against starvation from other cross traffic. The company said this approach ensures reliability and consistent call quality for VoIP calls.

Amazon Notes Some AWS Growth Metrics

In its quarterly financial report, Amazon disclosed that AWS now has over one million active customers (including trial accounts), with usage growth close to 90% year-over-year for the fourth quarter.

The company notes that AWS delivered over 515 significant service and feature releases in 2014 (up more than 80% year-over-year), and that is third annual customer conference attracted more than 13,500 attendees from 63 countries.

Amazon does not yet disclose sales figures for AWS.

DOCOMO Bundles "Hikari" Fiber Broadband Service

NTT DOCOMO will begin offering "docomo Hikari" optical-fiber broadband service alongside its mobile offerings.

The optical-fiber service will offer individuals and companies unlimited Internet connection at speeds of up to 1 Gbps.

Customers will not have to contract with a separate Internet service provider (ISP) since they can simply select from among many available ISPs.

Vodafone Tests 400G Transmission with Alcatel-Lucent

Vodafone Spain has successfully tested 400G optical transmission between Madrid and Zaragoza using existing optical infrastructure.

The trial was conducted with Alcatel-Lucent’s 400G technology on Vodafone Spain’s existing Dispersion Compensation Module network over a span of 400km. The companies said the trial demonstrated the ability of an existing optical network to carry up 17.6 Tbps of traffic, doubling the current spectral efficiency in fiber.

Alcatel-Lucent’s optical trial solution is based on its 1830 Photonic Service Switch platform, and has the ability to be deployed simultaneously with existing multiple 10 Gbps, 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps network links.

FCC Updates E911 Indoor Location Rules

The FCC updated its E911 rules to include requirements focused on indoor location accuracy for helping emergency responders find 911 callers.

The FCC said its new rules establish clear and measureable timelines for wireless providers to meet indoor location accuracy benchmarks, both for horizontal and vertical location information. The Commission noted that no single technological approach will solve the challenge of indoor location, and no solution can be implemented overnight. The new requirements therefore enable wireless providers to choose the most effective solutions and allow sufficient time for development of applicable standards, establishment of testing mechanisms, and deployment of new location technology.

Radisys Intros Data Plane Load Balancer

Radisys introduced its FlowEngine TDE-1000 Intelligent Load Balancer for software defined networks (SDN) in both data centers and telecommunications environments.

The TDE-1000 is a 3U platform that delivers wire speed IP packet classification and flow-based load balancing.  It is capable of distributing up to 1.2 Tbps of aggregate traffic across any third-party NFV infrastructure. It offloads Layer 2-4 network services, making VNF resource utilization more resource efficient and scalable.

Radisys said that when content and service providers deploy the new TDE-1000 in their network, traffic reaching their application server infrastructure is already pre-screened, leaving more NFV processing capacity for Layer 7 and application processing. This allows additional subscribers and services to use the same compute infrastructure.

Key capabilities include:

  • Wirespeed flow classification to rapidly identify traffic,
  • Integrated load balancing to intelligently share loads and steer data flows to appropriate VNFs.
  • Service chaining with flow affinity to support use cases like Gi-LAN
  • SDN control to achieve unprecedented flexibility in new service introduction

Broadcom Posts Q4 Revenue of $2.14 Billion, up 3.8% YoY

Broadcom reported Q4 2014 revenue of $2.14 billion, a decrease of 5.2% compared with the $2.26 billion reported for the third quarter of 2014 and an increase of 3.8% compared with the $2.06 billion reported for the fourth quarter of 2013. Net income (GAAP) for the fourth quarter of 2014 was $390 million, or $0.64 per share (diluted), compared with GAAP net income of $98 million, or $0.16 per share (diluted), for the third quarter of 2014 and GAAP net income of $168 million, or $0.29 per share (diluted), for the fourth quarter of 2013.

Net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $8.43 billion. This represents an increase in net revenue of 1.5% from the $8.31 billion reported for the year ended December 31, 2013.

GAAP net income for Q3 and Q4 included charges for restructuring costs and the impairment of long-lived assets, primarily related to Broadcom's decision to exit its cellular baseband business.

"Better than anticipated revenue produced operating results above consensus for the quarter, driven by stronger Broadband and Connectivity revenue in the high-end smartphone and broadband access markets," said Scott McGregor, Broadcom's President and Chief Executive Officer.  "2014 was a pivotal year where we focused on our core businesses, delivered record revenue and non-GAAP profitability, increased capital return and enhanced corporate governance."